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Librello publishing house

Librello is an innovative open access academic publishing house based in Basel, Switzerland. Working on a membership basis, we decouple the payment from the publication and can afford a rigorous single-blind peer review process with no economic pressure. Authors are able to submit an unlimited number of manuscripts to all open access journals through an annual flat fee.

Latest publications

Redefining Human Security for Vulnerable Migrants in East Asia
doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010045 | Journal of Human Security | 2015 | Volume 11 | Issue 1
Jiyoung Song
School of Social Sciences, Singapore Management University, 90 Stamford Road, Singapore
Views 374
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Publication Date: 14 December 2015

This article proposes human security as an analytical framework to understand the current trends of irregular migration (both forced and unauthorised) in East Asia and revisits the seven pillars of human security defined in the 1994 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). It explains how the concepts of human security are parallel to those prescribed in international human rights conventions but different in terms of the attitude towards states. Human security does not directly challenge state authority and adds a sense of urgency and moral authority that requires extra-legal measures by the states. The author argues that human security is the securitisation of human rights and is a better framework and policy discourse than human rights to engage with state and non-state actors, especially in East Asia where political leaders are more receptive to the former idea. The study draws examples from stateless Rohingyas, undocumented sex workers in Thailand and Singapore, trafficked brides from Vietnam and Cambodia, and smuggled North Korean refugees in China to demonstrate the nexus between human security and irregular migration.

A Review of "The Politics of Sustainability: Philosophical Perspectives"
doi: 10.12924/cis2015.03010018 | Challenges in Sustainability | 2015 | Volume 3 | Issue 1
José Goldemberg
Electrotechnical and Energy Institute (IEE), University of São Paulo (USP), Brazil
Views 281
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Publication Date: 4 December 2015

Concerns about sustainable development are not a recent phenomenon. Societal problem-solving efforts within this realm have focused on concrete problems such as the preservation of fisheries, forests and national reserves. 'The Politics of Sustainability' has been discussed extensively in  literature, particularly after the publication of the Brundtland Commission's 'Our Common Future' report in 1987 [1] emphasizing inter-generational responsibilities involving economic, environmental and social aspects. Among other areas, the authors of the report highlighted the challenge of global climate change resulting from, amongst other things, unsustainable patterns of consumption. 'The Politics of Sustainability: Philosophical Perspectives', edited by Dieter Birnhacher and May Thorseth, brings  a new angle into the discussion of the politics of sustainable development: ethical considerations.

Time for decarbonization of conservation and development projects? The political ecology of carbon projects
doi: 10.12924/cis2015.03010016 | Challenges in Sustainability | 2015 | Volume 3 | Issue 1
Pierre L. Ibisch
Centre for Econics and Ecosystem Management, Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Germany
Views 431
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Publication Date: 3 December 2015
Abstract: The globe's first carbon projects were designed and implemented approximately 20 years ago following scientific insights that emissions of greenhouse gases needed to be mitigated. Visible in some of these early projects were the important aspects of social governance and local benefit sharing. The projects promised to be a panacea to environmental, social and economic problems in remote rural areas of developing countries. However, it took another decade before a wave of hundreds of carbon projects were launched. Many of the projects were offered under the mechanism of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, plus the role of conservation, sustainable forest management and carbon enhancement), as well as under a variety of voluntary schemes and national programs, public-private partnerships, and forestry-based investment initiatives. As decision-makers prepare the Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climatic Change in Paris (COP21), Earthscan has released a book entitled `Carbon conflicts and forest landscapes in Africa', edited by Melissa Leach and Ian Scoones. According to the editors, the focus of the book is on what happens on the ground when carbon forestry projects arrive, what types of projects work, and, equally important, what doesn’t work.

Exploring the Feasibility of Using Silage-Based Feed with Alternative Sources of Protein in Organic Pig Rations
doi: 10.12924/of2015.01010050 | Organic Farming | 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 1
Ruth C. Clements 1, * , Laura E. Higham 1 , Jo Smith 2 , Catherine L. Gerrard 2 , Mike C. Colley 1 , Konstantinos Zaralis 2 , Rebecca Nelder 2 , Bruce Pearce 2 , Annie Rayner 1 and Ashleigh Bright 1
1 FAI Farms Ltd, The Field Station, Wytham, Oxford, UK
2 The Organic Research Centre, Elm Farm, Hamstead Marshall, UK
* Corresponding author
Views 500
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Publication Date: 5 November 2015
Abstract: Current regulations for organic pig and poultry production systems permit feed ingredients of non-organic origin at an inclusion rate of up to 5 per cent. This is primarily due to concerns that there is an insufficient supply of organic protein on the European Union market, in terms of quality and quantity, to meet the nutritional requirements of pigs and poultry raised on organic farms. However, 100 per cent organic diets for monogastric livestock will become compulsory in the EU from 1 January 2018, and there is therefore a need to develop sustainable feeding strategies based on organic feeds. This feed trial conducted in the UK explores the feasibility of using a silage-based feeding system for Gloucester Old Spot pigs, and compares the inclusion of soya, beans and peas as protein sources in terms of pig growth performance. No significant difference in the pen mean daily live weight gain was observed during the grower phase (pen mean age of 11-14 weeks) between the diet groups. However, during the finisher phase (pen mean age of 15-22 weeks), pigs on the soya and pea rations had significantly faster growth rates than pigs fed the bean ration. It is speculated that the slight shortfall in growth rate observed in the pigs fed the bean ration may be offset by the lower cost of production of beans in the UK. This feasibility trial demonstrates that a 100 per cent organic diet for pigs using alternative, locally-grown sources of protein as part of a forage-based ration can provide a viable alternative to a soya-based diet.

A Review of 'Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture. Studies in Pre-Modern Organic'
doi: 10.12924/of2015.01010046 | Organic Farming | 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 1
Marco Pautasso
Animal & Plant Health Unit, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Views 507
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Publication Date: 7 October 2015
Abstract: This brilliant and original book by Jan Zadoks, a renowned, prolific and polyglot Dutch plant epidemiologist [2], provides a systematic, learned and well-structured overview of our understanding of medieval crop protection in Europe.

Sustainability of Fiscal Policy in Democracies and Autocracies
doi: 10.12924/cis2015.03010001 | Challenges in Sustainability | 2015 | Volume 3 | Issue 1
Stefan Wurster
Institute for Political Science, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Germany
Views 551
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Publication Date: 30 September 2015
Abstract: This paper tries to identify the fiscal sustainability record of democratically and autocratically governed countries by applying various performance indicators (credit worthiness, payment defaults, national debt, foreign assets) and also to clarify what effect the characteristics of a regime have on consolidation efforts in a country. The study identifies two key findings. While in the past, democracies have clearly found it easier to preserve their credit standing and solvency and to avoid government bankruptcy, a similar advantage can no longer be detected for democracies in terms of reducing national debt and foreign debts. Why democracies, in spite of their arrangements with a sensitivity for the public good and for due process, are finding it so difficult to avoid shifting their debts to future generations, to undertake cutback measures and to provide sufficient financial foresight, can in principle be interpreted as the other side of the coin, namely highly presence-oriented interests boosted even further through the short "democracy-specific time horizon".

Educational Pathways to Remote Employment in Isolated Communities
doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010034 | Journal of Human Security | 2015 | Volume 11 | Issue 1
David Denkenberger 1, 2 , Julia Way 1, 3 and Joshua M. Pearce 1, 4, 5, *
1 Michigan Tech Open Sustainability Technology (MOST) Lab, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
2 Civil and Architectural Engineering, Tennessee State University, TN, USA
3 Career Development Education, Michigan Tech Career Services, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
4 Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
5 Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
* Corresponding author
Views 519
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Publication Date: 29 September 2015
Abstract: Those who live in isolated communities often lack reliable, skilled employment opportunities, which fundamentally undermines their human security. For individuals who wish to remain in their isolated communities for family, religious, philosophical or other reasons, their attachment to their communities creates a disincentive for higher education. This promotes low educational achievement, which in turn results in low socioeconomic status, lack of social mobility, and a generational cycle of poverty. The human misery that results from such a feedback loop is observed in isolated communities throughout North America, including aboriginal communities in Canada. Fortunately, maturation of information and communication technologies now offers individuals the potential to gain high-skilled employment while living in an isolated community, using both (i) virtual work/remote work and (ii) remote training and education. To examine that potential, this study: 1) categorizes high-skill careers that demand a higher education and are widely viable for remote work, 2) examines options for obtaining the required education remotely, and 3) performs an economic analysis of investing in remote education, quantifying the results in return on investment. The results show that the Internet has now opened up the possibility of both remote education and remote work. Though the investment in college education is significant, there are loans available and the return on investment is generally far higher than the interest rate on the loans. The results identified several particularly promising majors and dozens of high-income careers. The ability to both obtain an education and employment remotely offers the potential to lift many people living in isolated communities out of poverty, reduce inequality overall, and provide those living in isolated communities with viable means of employment security, which not only allows personal sustainability, but also the potential for personal growth.

Notes from the Field: The Humanitarian Crisis in Ukraine
doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010027 | Journal of Human Security | 2015 | Volume 11 | Issue 1
John M Quinn
Prague Center for Global Health, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University of Medicine Prague, Czech Republic
Views 1143
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Publication Date: 9 July 2015
Abstract: Humanitarian crises are politically and socially charged, and as actors, donors and organizations move in to help, duplication of services can ensue. Despite the influx of humanitarian actors into the war zone of eastern Ukraine, more are still needed to address immediate threat to the health of more than 5 million at-risk people in the area. The humanitarian disaster in Ukraine requires fast support and stakeholder involvement to mitigate preventable death among at-risk populations. As the crisis unfolds and many more people are caught in the crossfire with no health security, WHO is leading the charge to organize healthcare and humanitarian action to relive human suffering and engender health security for all.

100% Organic Poultry Feed: Can Algae Replace Soybean Expeller in Organic Broiler Diets?
doi: 10.12924/of2015.01010038 | Organic Farming | 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 1
Catherine L. Gerrard 1, * , Jo Smith 1 , Rebecca Nelder 1 , Ashleigh Bright 2 , Mike Colley 2 , Ruth Clements 2 and Bruce D. Pearce 1
1 The Organic Research Centre Elm Farm Hamstead Marshall, UK
2 FAI Farms The John Krebbs Field Station Wytham, Oxford, UK
* Corresponding author
Views 1187
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Publication Date: 7 May 2015
Abstract: Current EU regulations allow 5% of feed for organic poultry to come from non-organic production. This is due to concerns about a 100% organic diet meeting the requirements for specific amino acids such as methionine. This exception is due to end on 31st December 2017. While this may match consumer expectations, protein sourced from global organic production may have a negative impact on perceptions of organic poultry in other ways. Soybean is a commonly used ingredient in poultry feed but soybean production has negative environmental and social impacts. Consumers may also prefer organic poultry to have been fed on locally produced feed and, indeed, this would be in line with organic principles. Preliminary feasibility feed trials were carried out during a summer and a winter season using organic broilers in the UK to test three 100% organic feeds: a control diet with globally sourced ingredients including soybean expeller, a diet based on locally sourced (i.e. within Europe) organic ingredients, and a diet based on locally sourced organic ingredients and algae (a good source of methionine). The results of the summer feed trial showed that there were no significant differences in broiler weight gains. In the winter feed trial differences were found. There was a significant difference (P = 0.034) in weight gain between the local feed (lower weight gain) and the local feed with algae but no significant difference between the control diet with soybean and the two local diets. These preliminary feed trials indicate that there is no significant impact on broiler performance or animal welfare parameters when replacing soybean with European protein sources, possibly including algae, suggesting that, although the research is still at a very early stage, such feeds may be a viable option for 100% organic poultry feed in the future.

A Review of 'Humanitarian Intervention and Legitimacy Wars: Seeking Peace and Justice in the 21st Century'
doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010026 | Journal of Human Security | 2015 | Volume 11 | Issue 1
Leah Merchant
Department of Political Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Views 857
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Publication Date: 27 April 2015
Abstract: In his book Humanitarian Intervention and Legitimacy Wars: Seeking Peace and Justice in the 21st Century, Richard Falk argues that, with the growing prevalence of soft power, historical lessons of asymmetric warfare and legitimacy wars must be taken into account. Falk rejects the realist notion that the state is the only rational actor, offering a more constructivist approach that focuses on the norms, culture and morality of the international community. He asserts that humanitarian intervention is on the decline, and legitimacy wars are increasing. Much of this legitimacy is based on international law and its relevance in the international community.

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