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Librello publishing house

Librello is an innovative open access academic publishing house based in Basel, Switzerland. Working on a membership basis, we decouple the payment from the publication and can afford a rigorous single-blind peer review process with no economic pressure. Authors are able to submit an unlimited number of manuscripts to all open access journals through an annual flat fee.

Latest publications

Notes from the Field: The Humanitarian Crisis in Ukraine
doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010027 | Journal of Human Security | 2015 | Volume 11 | Issue 1
John M Quinn
Prague Center for Global Health, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University of Medicine Prague, Czech Republic
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Publication Date: 9 July 2015
Abstract: Humanitarian crises are politically and socially charged, and as actors, donors and organizations move in to help, duplication of services can ensue. Despite the influx of humanitarian actors into the war zone of eastern Ukraine, more are still needed to address immediate threat to the health of more than 5 million at-risk people in the area. The humanitarian disaster in Ukraine requires fast support and stakeholder involvement to mitigate preventable death among at-risk populations. As the crisis unfolds and many more people are caught in the crossfire with no health security, WHO is leading the charge to organize healthcare and humanitarian action to relive human suffering and engender health security for all.

100% Organic Poultry Feed: Can Algae Replace Soybean Expeller in Organic Broiler Diets?
doi: 10.12924/of2015.01010038 | Organic Farming | 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 1
Catherine L. Gerrard 1, * , Jo Smith 1 , Rebecca Nelder 1 , Ashleigh Bright 2 , Mike Colley 2 , Ruth Clements 2 and Bruce D. Pearce 1
1 The Organic Research Centre Elm Farm Hamstead Marshall, UK
2 FAI Farms The John Krebbs Field Station Wytham, Oxford, UK
* Corresponding author
Views 615
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Publication Date: 7 May 2015
Abstract: Current EU regulations allow 5% of feed for organic poultry to come from non-organic production. This is due to concerns about a 100% organic diet meeting the requirements for specific amino acids such as methionine. This exception is due to end on 31st December 2017. While this may match consumer expectations, protein sourced from global organic production may have a negative impact on perceptions of organic poultry in other ways. Soybean is a commonly used ingredient in poultry feed but soybean production has negative environmental and social impacts. Consumers may also prefer organic poultry to have been fed on locally produced feed and, indeed, this would be in line with organic principles. Preliminary feasibility feed trials were carried out during a summer and a winter season using organic broilers in the UK to test three 100% organic feeds: a control diet with globally sourced ingredients including soybean expeller, a diet based on locally sourced (i.e. within Europe) organic ingredients, and a diet based on locally sourced organic ingredients and algae (a good source of methionine). The results of the summer feed trial showed that there were no significant differences in broiler weight gains. In the winter feed trial differences were found. There was a significant difference (P = 0.034) in weight gain between the local feed (lower weight gain) and the local feed with algae but no significant difference between the control diet with soybean and the two local diets. These preliminary feed trials indicate that there is no significant impact on broiler performance or animal welfare parameters when replacing soybean with European protein sources, possibly including algae, suggesting that, although the research is still at a very early stage, such feeds may be a viable option for 100% organic poultry feed in the future.

A Review of 'Humanitarian Intervention and Legitimacy Wars: Seeking Peace and Justice in the 21st Century'
doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010026 | Journal of Human Security | 2015 | Volume 11 | Issue 1
Leah Merchant
Department of Political Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Views 396
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Publication Date: 27 April 2015
Abstract: In his book Humanitarian Intervention and Legitimacy Wars: Seeking Peace and Justice in the 21st Century, Richard Falk argues that, with the growing prevalence of soft power, historical lessons of asymmetric warfare and legitimacy wars must be taken into account. Falk rejects the realist notion that the state is the only rational actor, offering a more constructivist approach that focuses on the norms, culture and morality of the international community. He asserts that humanitarian intervention is on the decline, and legitimacy wars are increasing. Much of this legitimacy is based on international law and its relevance in the international community.

A New Evaluation Culture Is Inevitable
doi: 10.12924/of2015.01010036 | Organic Farming | 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 1
Jack B. Spaapen
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, PO Box 19121, 1000 GC Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Views 386
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Publication Date: 23 April 2015
Abstract: Changes in the production of research (more collaborative, more inter- and transdisciplinary, more oriented towards societal demand) are influencing the ways in which research is evaluated. Traditional methods of evaluation primarily focussing on the production of scientific articles have long since given way to more comprehensive methods in which researchers’ other activities are assessed too. Beyond these developments, evaluation also involves research endeavours concerning collaboration with other stakeholders in society, such as industry, NGO’s, consumer groups, or governmental organisations.

Applications of Open Source 3-D Printing on Small Farms
doi: 10.12924/of2015.01010019 | Organic Farming | 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 1
Joshua M. Pearce 1, 2
1 Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
2 Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
Views 1532
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Publication Date: 16 April 2015
Abstract: There is growing evidence that low-cost open-source 3-D printers can reduce costs by enabling distributed manufacturing of substitutes for both specialty equipment and conventional mass-manufactured products. The rate of 3-D printable designs under open licenses is growing exponentially and there arealready hundreds of designs applicable to small-scale organic farming. It has also been hypothesized that this technology could assist sustainable development in rural communities that rely on small-scale organic agriculture. To gauge the present utility of open-source 3-D printers in this organic farm context both in the developed and developing world, this paper reviews the current open-source designs available and evaluates the ability of low-cost 3-D printers to be effective at reducing the economic costs of farming.This study limits the evaluation of open-source 3-D printers to only the most-developed fused filament fabrication of the bioplastic polylactic acid (PLA). PLA is a strong biodegradable and recyclable thermoplastic appropriate for a range of representative products, which are grouped into five categories of prints: handtools, food processing, animal management, water management and hydroponics. The advantages and shortcomings of applying 3-D printing to each technology are evaluated. The results show a general izabletechnical viability and economic benefit to adopting open-source 3-D printing for any of the technologies, although the individual economic impact is highly dependent on needs and frequency of use on a specific farm. Capital costs of a 3-D printer may be saved from on-farm printing of a single advanced analytical instrument in a day or replacing hundreds of inexpensive products over a year. In order for the full potential of open-source 3-D printing to be realized to assist organic farm economic resiliency and self-sufficiency, future work is outlined in five core areas: designs of 3-D printable objects, 3-D printing materials, 3-Dprinters, software and 3-D printable repositories.

Strategies towards Evaluation beyond Scientific Impact. Pathways not only for Agricultural Research
doi: 10.12924/of2015.01010003 | Organic Farming | 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 1
Birge M. Wolf 1, * , Anna-Maria Häring 2 and Jürgen Heß 1
1 University of Kassel, Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, Organic Farming & Cropping Systems, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, 37214 Witzenhausen, Germany
2 Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Department Policy and Markets in the Agro-Food Sector, Schicklerstr. 5, 16225 Eberswalde, Germany
* Corresponding author
Views 954
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Publication Date: 15 April 2015

Various research fields, like organic agricultural research, are dedicated to solving real-world problems and contributing to sustainable development. Therefore, systems research and the application of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches are increasingly endorsed. However, research performance depends not only on self-conception, but also on framework conditions of the scientific system, which are not always of benefit to such research fields. Recently, science and its framework conditions have been under increasing scrutiny as regards their ability to serve societal benefit. This provides opportunities for (organic) agricultural research to engage in the development of a research system that will serve its needs. This article focuses on possible strategies for facilitating a balanced research evaluation that recognises scientific quality as well as societal relevance and applicability. These strategies are (a) to strengthen the general support for evaluation beyond scientific impact, and (b) to provide accessible data for such evaluations. Synergies of interest are found between open access movements and research communities focusing on global challenges and sustainability. As both are committed to increasing the societal benefit of science, they may support evaluation criteria such as knowledge production and dissemination tailored to societal needs, and the use of open access. Additional synergies exist between all those who scrutinise current research evaluation systems for their ability to serve scientific quality, which is also a precondition for societal benefit. Here, digital communication technologies provide opportunities to increase effectiveness, transparency, fairness and plurality in the dissemination of scientific results, quality assurance and reputation. Furthermore, funders may support transdisciplinary approaches and open access and improve data availability for evaluation beyond scientific impact. If they begin to use current research information systems that include societal impact data while reducing the requirements for narrative reports, documentation burdens on researchers may be relieved, with the funders themselves acting as data providers for researchers, institutions and tailored dissemination beyond academia.

Human Security Workers Deployed in Austere Environments: A Brief Guide to Self-Care, Sustainment, and Productivity
doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010019 | Journal of Human Security | 2015 | Volume 11 | Issue 1
Thomas F. Ditzler 1, * , Abigail D. Hoeh 1 and Patricia R. Hastings 2
1 Department of Psychiatry, Tripler Army Medical Center, 1 Jarrett White Rd, Honolulu, HI, 96859, USA
2 Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) Surgeon's Office, United States Department of Defense (DOD), 1400 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC, USA
* Corresponding author
Views 453
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Publication Date: 14 April 2015
Abstract: Since the early 1990s, the human security movement has sought to expand the concept of security beyond the traditional military defense of national borders to focus on the intra-state security needs of populations at the individual level. Specific initiatives frequently address problems of population health, ethnic conflict, religious extremism, human rights, environmental or natural disasters, and other critical issues. For expatriate human security workers in the field, the environment may present meaningful challenges to their wellbeing and productivity. This can be especially so for those who have relatively more experience in academic, business, or administrative settings, and less in the field. The authors' goal is to illuminate practices that have demonstrated their efficacy in enhancing wellness, sustainment, and productivity for human security and other humanitarian and development workers deployed to austere environments. The content represents a synoptic consensus of best general practices and guidance from a range of resources comprising United Nations agencies and activities, national and international non-governmental organizations (NGO's), private volunteer organ­izations (PVO's), national military services, and international business concerns.

Sustainable Health for All? The Tension Between Human Security and the Right to Health Care
doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010005 | Journal of Human Security | 2015 | Volume 11 | Issue 1
Alexander K. Lautensach
School of Education, University of Northern British Columbia, 4837 Keith Ave. Terrace, B.C. V8G 1K7, Canada
Views 761
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Publication Date: 24 February 2015

In the current global environmental crisis medical aid and disaster relief is given by the UN and its branches, by governments and by NGOs, who regard it as their duty to address large-scale humanitarian catastrophes. The duty to give medical aid rests on traditional interpretations of health security and on the bioethical imperatives to relieve suffering and to save lives. However, those principles are not easily reconciled in the current situation of global environmental change and the threats it poses to human security. The global demand for health care has already outpaced resources in many regions, and those resources are likely to decline further. An ethic based on more comprehensive concepts of human security can lessen the contra­dictions between ethical priorities because it takes into account environmental security. How­ever, that approach leads to clashes with common interpretations of human rights, including the so-called right to health care. The argument presented in this paper states that, under the imperative of ensuring the survival for humanity in acceptable and sustainable ways, the latest generation of human rights pertaining to health care and environmental quality have become ungrantable. While this does not render them negligible, it does necessitate a new approach to global development aid and health security, with severe consequences for individual autonomy.


Editorial for Journal of Human Security Volume 11
doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010001 | Journal of Human Security | 2015 | Volume 11 | Issue 1
Sabina Lautensach 1, 2, 3
1 Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Human Security, Librello, Basel, Switzerland
2 Human Security Institute, Canada
3 University of Northern British Columbia, Terrace Campus, BC, Canada
Views 524
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Publication Date: 24 February 2015

This editorial marks the beginning of the journal's eleventh year since its inception as the Australasian Journal of Human Security. As a sample from an ex­tremely tumultuous era in human history, this time span has consistently provided an abundance of human security issues for me to comment on. Yet, for the first time since that fateful day in September of 2001, I feel that the world has arrived at another historical turning point. I am referring to the attack on the Paris office of the satirical journal Charlie Hebdo on January 7 and the events immediately following it.

Jephias Gwamuri 1, 2 , Ben T. Wittbrodt 1, 2 , Nick C. Anzalone 1 and Joshua M. Pearce 1, 2, 3, *
1 The Michigan Tech Open Sustainability Technology (MOST) Laboratory 601 M&M Building 1400 Townsend Drive Houghton, MI 49931-1295, United States
2 Department of Materials Science & Engineering Michigan Technological University 601 M&M Building 1400 Townsend Drive Houghton, MI 49931-1295, United States
3 Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering Michigan Technological University 601 M&M Building 1400 Townsend Drive Houghton, MI 49931-1295, United States
* Corresponding author
Views 1613
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Publication Date: 12 December 2014
Abstract: Although the trend in manufacturing has been towards centralization to leverage economies of scale, the recent rapid technical development of open-source 3-D printers enables low-cost distributed bespoke production. This paper explores the potential advantages of a distributed manufacturing model of high-value products by investigating the application of 3-D printing to self-refraction eyeglasses. A series of parametric 3-D printable designs is developed, fabricated and tested to overcome limitations identified with mass-manufactured self-correcting eyeglasses designed for the developing world's poor. By utilizing 3-D printable self-adjustable glasses, communities not only gain access to far more diversity in product design, as the glasses can be customized for the individual, but 3-D printing also offers the potential for significant cost reductions. The results show that distributed manufacturing with open-source 3-D printing can empower developing world communities through the ability to print less expensive and customized self-adjusting eyeglasses. This offers the potential to displace both centrally manufactured conventional and self-adjusting glasses while completely eliminating the costs of the conventional optics correction experience, including those of highly-trained optometrists and ophthalmologists and their associated equipment. Although, this study only analyzed a single product, it is clear that other products would benefit from the same approach in isolated regions of the developing world.

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