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Librello is an innovative open access academic publishing house based in Basel, Switzerland. Working on a membership basis, we decouple the payment from the publication and can afford a rigorous single-blind peer review process with no economic pressure. Authors are able to submit an unlimited number of manuscripts to all open access journals through an annual flat fee.

Latest publications

Abstract: Rooftop solar photovoltaics will play a role in decarbonizing electricity generation and meeting global climate goals. Policymakers can benefit from understanding how their policy choices impact rooftop solar PV adoption. We conduct a case study of Regina, Saskatchewan to determine the extent to which solar policy changes in that Canadian province have impacted the relative desirability of rooftop solar PV. We assess financial returns that can be achieved in Regina under three policy scenarios: net metering, net billing, and net billing with a capital incentive. We use GIS analysis to identify suitable roofs in Regina and assess any shading that may occur. We calculate hourly capacity factors for these roofs using solar irradiation data, temperature data, and shading factors. We match the simulated solar output results with hourly load data to simulate over 4 million potential roof-load combinations and calculate NPV and net monthly return for each combination. We conduct a telephone survey of 451 Regina residents to assess willingness to install solar at different levels of financial return and compare these results to our solar simulations. Our results indicate that a move from net metering to net billing reduced financial returns from rooftop solar and lowered solar potential from 129 Gigawatt-hours (GWh) per year to 99 GWh/yr in Regina. The introduction of a capital incentive grant by the federal government has helped increase solar potential upwards to 120 GWh/yr. The capital incentive grant may also help overcome high discount rates by providing a larger upfront benefit to households that install solar.


Capturing the various facets of sustainable development is the main objective of sustainability assess- ment studies. Scientists and practitioners use sustainable development criteria and indicators as instruments to link the theoretical definitions with the evaluation of the effectiveness of management strategies; therefore, identifying and selecting indicators are the most critical processes in evaluating the implementation of sustainable development strategies and progress toward achieving sustainability goals and objectives. The manuscript argues the need for increasing credibility in the identification and selection of criteria and indicators through stakeholder engagement, participation and management. Sustainability aims to primarily address and balance the [social, economic, environmental] needs and expectations of stakeholders; therefore, reaching consensus amongst the various groups of stakeholders became the determining factor in the design, implementation, and assessment of sustainable development strategies. Because a precise definition of sustainability that is universally agreed upon is yet to be introduced, the process of identifying and selecting indicators to assess progress toward achieving sustainable development is embedded in subjectivity and vagueness and can be easily manipulated to meet particular interests. Furthermore, the absence of rigorous and standardized methodological frameworks contributes to continuously proposing set indicators that best capture the notion of sustainable development which creates distrust in the assessment process and directly affects the credibility of the sustainability concept. Departing from acknowledging the relevance of stakeholders groups in decision-making and management processes, the manuscript identifies and discusses three credible and reliable frameworks designed by consensus (FDC) to identify and select criteria and indicators to assess the sustainability performance of cities and communities: (1) ISO 37130:2018 which is complemented by ISO 37122:2019, (2) United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) with focus on Goal 11, and (3) customized frameworks for sustainable cities (CFSS). To minimize subjectivity and strengthen credibility, the manuscript also makes the case for the need of embedding FDC into sustainability assessment processes to identify and select criteria and indicators. Because of the methodology adopted for their development, FDC provide scientists and practitioners with reliable and credible sources to identify and select criteria and indicators for the assessment of the sustainability performance of cities and communities.

Rehema E. Mwaipopo 1 , Abdul Jafari Shango 2, * , Philip B. Maswi 3 , Ramadhani O. Majubwa 1 and Janet F. Maro 4
1 Department of Crop Science and Horticulture, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
2 World Vegetable Center, Arusha, Tanzania
3 Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
4 Sustainable Agriculture Tanzania, Morogoro, Tanzania
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 19 May 2023
Abstract: In Tanzania, seed infection by bacterial leaf spot (BLS) pathogens (Xanthomonads) causes yield losses up to 45% in the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.; Solanaceae family). Several studies have been conducted and wedged ecological organic agriculture (EOA) technologies (i.e., on botanicals/ biopesticides) which are significant to organic farmers in Tanzania. Nevertheless, these studies have been conducted in laboratory and screenhouse conditions, hence the technology cannot be disseminated to organic farmers for application before being validated. The current study was laid out as a 2x3 factorial experiment with five replications. Factor A was two common tomato cultivars “Rio grande” and “Malkia F1”, while factor B was seed treatment with three levels of crude plant extracts namely A. vera, C. arabica, and A. vera + C. arabica, and untreated control. Tomato seeds were soaked in the ready-made extracts for 12 hrs, then air-dried for 1 hr before sowing. The collected data were subjected to analysis of variance using Genstat 16th edition software and means were separated using Tukey’s Honest Test at (α = 0.05). The highest efficacy against the pathogen (Xanthomonas perforans) causing bacterial leaf spot (BLS) was obtained from a combination of extracts from A. vera + C. arabica hence, recommended for seed treatment. Organic tomato farmers need to adopt seed treatment practices that ensure seedlings’ start-up and enhance crop growth and productivity. Although the results of validation comply with the recommendations from previous research findings, further study is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of plant extracts subject to seasonal variability among the production areas. Also, the bioactive fractions from the plant extracts and their mechanisms of action need to be evaluated comprehensively.

Michał Czuba 1, * and Rafał Muster 2
1 Institute of Political Sciences of the University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Silesia, Poland
2 Institute of Sociology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Silesia, Poland
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 2 May 2023

The precariat is a new social category that exists in all countries around the world and consists of people who work in the gig economy and/or are employed under civil law contracts. One of the key factors that determines membership of the precariat is the uncertainty felt by individuals in the labour market as a result of, inter alia, being employed on flexible forms. The research aim of this article is to define the specificity of the Polish precariat and their sense of social security in the context of the current employment support and social policy of the Polish government. The utilitarian goal is to evaluate the “Polish Deal” programme currently proposed by the Polish government in terms of its strengths and weaknesses in order to reduce the precariat phenomenon and boost the Polish precariat’s sense of social security. The article also attempts to demonstrate the effects of actions taken by the Polish government since 2015, which were aimed at improving the situation on the precariat labour market.

In order to determine the extent to which the current government in Poland affects the social security of the precariat and satisfies their needs by taking social welfare action and implementing indirect operations related to education, a questionnaire was used, conducted via the Internet, involving a survey panel of respondents. In this study, a stratified-quota sample selection was used, corresponding to the proportions of people working on the basis of various flexible forms of fixed-term employment and self-employment.

One thousand respondents employed on flexible terms participated in the study. The study was carried out at the turn of March/April 2021.



This manuscript presents an analysis of commercially developed appraisal instruments (CDAIs) using composite indices to assess, compare and rank the sustainability performance of cities and communities. A group of CDAIs using composite indices are commonly used to assess, compare, and rank the sustainability performance of cities and communities. As a sustainability assessment methodology, composite indices gather qualitative and quantitative information which is then used to calculate the overall performance of the principle (e.g., sustainability); the stand-alone number, commonly known as an index, is often used to compare and rank performance. Because of practicality and mistakenly perceived simplicity, the assessment methodology is often misunderstood and underestimated. Issues, skepticism, and criticism surrounding composite indices are rooted in the lack of structured and transparent methodological frameworks for the identification and selection of elements within each hierarchical level. Although scientifically-based methodologies and processes have been developed to assign relevance (i.e., weighting) and aggregate performance to calculate the stand-alone index, the effectiveness of the assessment methodology (i.e., composite indices) is still influenced by various degrees and types of subjectivity and uncertainty. To evaluate their effectiveness, the manuscript discusses three characteristics of CDAIs using composite indices: (1) the hierarchical structural organization (HSO) considers the aim of each hierarchical level in the assessment process, (2) the identification, selection and design of the elements (e.g., principle, sub-principles, criteria, indicators) included in each hierarchical level as a determinant factor in capturing the various facets of the sustainable development notion, and (3) the quantification methodology (i.e., weighting and aggregation system [W&AS]) implemented by the developer or proponent of the assessment tool. The analysis of CDAIs using composite indices effectiveness is partially assisted by three frameworks designed by consensus (FDC): (1) ISO 37130:2018 Sustainable development of communities—Indicators for city services and quality of life which is complemented with ISO 37122:2019 Sustainable cities and communities—Indicators for smart cities and ISO 37123:2019 Sustainable cities and communities—Indicators for resilient cities, (2) United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) with emphasis on Goal 11, and (3) customized frameworks for sustainable cities (CFSS) with a focus on sustainability plans designed and implemented by the cities of Vancouver and Montreal which are used as case studies. While the findings support the applicability and usefulness of CDAIs using composite indices as assessment methodology, the appropriateness of comparing and ranking the sustainability performance of cities and communities is an unsettled debate with several areas for improvement and future research.


Over the last five years, violent non-state actors have acquired armed unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and have been using them extensively. This paper presents the main non-state actors involved and the areas in which they have used this tool, as well as how UAVs are used and procured. To date, armed UAVs have mainly been used by non-state actors in the Middle East and Central Asia. They have also been used in the conflict zones of Ukraine, Myanmar, Mexico, and Ecuador. While this is worrisome, limited evidence suggests that violent non-state actors use armed UAVs intentionally in areas where mostly civilians are present. The paper details the state of UAV usage by non-state actors and develops a thesis of cyclic adaptation between state and non-state actors. Not only do non-state actors learn from state actors, so does state and state-backed actors learn from non-state actors in conflict zones.

This process have been visible on the battlefield in Ukraine, where state-backed actors on both sides have incorporated smaller consumer style UAVs into their repertoire. As the use of armed UAVs developed substantially following Hezbollah’s early UAV operations in 2004 and spread to many regions of the world, the adaptation of non-state cleverness and ingenuity can be harnessed by state actors in times of poor or limited access to weaponry and support systems.

Dilip Nandwani 1, * and Kripa Dhakal 1
1 Department of Agriculture and Environmental Science, College of Agriculture, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN, USA
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 16 December 2022
Abstract: Several scientific reports indicate lower as well as higher relative yield stability in organic and conventional (chemical) agriculture systems.   This study present results of on-farm trials conducted on leafy vegetables grown in in organic and conventional management systems. Four leafy vegetables collard green (Brassica oleracea cv. acephala), kale (Brassica oleracea cv. sabellica), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. cv. cicla) were grown in organic and conventionally managed plots in the spring 2018 and 2020. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), National Organic Program (NOP) standards were followed for cultural and management practices in organically managed experimental field plots. Synthetic chemical inputs (seeds and fertilizer) were applied in the experimental field plots managed in conventional production system. Data on plant height, leaf number and total fresh weight of leafy vegetables were measured at the end of the experiment. Results showed that maximum fresh weight per plant was obtained from conventionally grown kale and the lowest was recorded in conventionally grown lettuce. The fresh weight of collard (344.1 g/plant) and kale (475.6 g/plant) was significantly higher in conventional system relative to the organic management system in collar (184.9 g/plant) and kale (242.3 g/plant). In contrast, for lettuce, significantly greater fresh weight was obtained in the organic (266.5 g/plant) compared to conventional (189.3 g/plant). No difference recorded in fresh weight of swiss chard grown in organic (222.0 g/plant) and conventional (263.7 g/plant) production systems. No difference observed in plant height and number of leaf count between the two production systems. Findings suggest that growth and yield responses in organic and conventional production systems can vary with the individual crop species. Results presented could be helpful to growers in planning for the organic production of leafy greens vegetables.

José Rafael Tovar Cuevas 1, * , Juan David Díaz Mutis 1, 2 , Sandra Balanta Cobo 3 and Luis Miguel Tovar Cuevas 3
1 School of Statistics, Faculty of Engineering, University of the Valley, Santiago de Cali, Valle del Cuaca, Colombia
2 Departmental Secretary of the Health, Santiago de Cali, Colombia
3 Department of Social and Economic Sciences, Pontifical Javeriana University Santiago de Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 7 December 2022
Abstract: This article presents a methodological proposal for formulating a Human Security Index (HSI), including information from institutional sources and the inhabitants' perception of security. The developed methodology uses quantitative methods to evaluate HS (Human Security) in small municipalities with large rural areas affected by the confluence of different social and economic problems. Given the security conditions in the area, it was impossible to use a random sampling mechanism. Therefore, the data collected have a sample size that cannot be considered significant enough to make inferences using a frequentist statistics approach. The method to construct the index is illustrated using Miranda's data, a Colombian municipality exposed to decades of armed conflict. With the answers given by 55 interviewees to questions related to the armed conflict such as presence-absence reminders and retained values of violent events, a proposal of 36 indices was made, and two of them were selected for the study, following some statistical criteria. In the construction of one of these selected indices, we used information from binary variables and, for the other index, we used information from count data. The values obtained by both indices for the municipality of Miranda were, respectively, 46.4 and 35.8. According to HS experts, both values can be considered moderate levels in the perception of insecurity by residents of the municipality.

Jaishankar Ganapathy 1, * , Ajmal Nimruzi 2 and Shakirullah Dawar 3
1 Department of Post Graduate Studies, Norwegian Police University College, Oslo, Norway
2 Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås. Norway
3 Department of Development Studies COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Abbottabad Campus, Pakistan
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 18 November 2022
Abstract: Youth are the backbone of any nation, and they are decisive in its development or destruction. A considerable portion of the population in both Afghanistan and Pakistan consists of youth. This paper discusses the impacts of unemployment, poverty, drug abuse, corruption, conflicts, and extremism on the experiences of young people in these countries. Vulnerabilities can become risk factors that, in turn, can increase the likelihood of youth being involved with the police. Although vulnerability and insecurity are common to both young women and men, girls and young women face additional challenges that increase their vulnerability to insecurities, such as gender-based violence. This article details how livelihood and personal insecurities are closely intertwined and further considers how these insecurities involve the police in one way or another. It argues that local community-oriented police initiatives and civil society organisation contributions can increase cooperation between youth and law enforcement agencies in addressing these challenges in a collaborative and trustful manner.

Heidi Riley 1, * , Hanna Ketola 2 and Punam Yadav 3
1 School of Politics and International Relations, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
2 Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England
3 Institute for Risk and Disaster Reduction, University College London, London, England
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 28 October 2022

This article examines the construction of gender agendas in left-wing populist movements that mobilise for armed struggle, by focusing on the case of the Maoist movement in Nepal. Feminist scholarship has highlighted how left-wing populism, when appealing to a generalized “people”, tend to produce homogenizing discourses that erase inequalities and difference, even when such movements integrate a gender dimension. Examining the trajectory of the Maoist movement over time, we argue that this ‘sameness’ may become contested and utilized by women participating in the lower echelons of the movement, as the political reality shifts from conflict to post-conflict context. As our main contribution, we develop a bi-directional approach that employs the concept of collective identity and allows us to examine the construction of populist agendas as a two-way interaction between the leadership of a movement and its grass roots supporters. Through this approach we show how the gender dimension was not merely a bi-product but central to both the construction of the Maoist movement’s war time ‘progressive’ identity, and the fragmentation of this identity and the movement’s populist appeal in the post-conflict context.

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