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Librello publishing house


Librello is an innovative open access academic publishing house based in Basel, Switzerland. Working on a membership basis, we decouple the payment from the publication and can afford a rigorous single-blind peer review process with no economic pressure. Authors are able to submit an unlimited number of manuscripts to all open access journals through an annual flat fee.

Latest publications

JoHS
Local Actor Strategies for Achieving Human Security Functionings
doi: 10.12924/johs2017.13010022 | Journal of Human Security | 2017 | Volume 13 | Issue 1
Nikolai Holm
Faculty for Social Science, Nord University, Bodø, Norway
Views 270
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Publication Date: 11 May 2017
 
Abstract: This article explores the experiences of community-level actors in the pursuit of greater human security in their communities. Utilizing a conceptual framework based on the capability approach, human security, and securitization theory it considers local actor perceptions of security and the strategies used to achieve their goals. It presents and discusses strategies employed by two distinct actors—a local non-governmental organization and an independent group of community dwellers—in their attempts to achieve security functionings. The results of this qualitative study suggest that while community-level actors view themselves as being empowered as agents in achieving certain human security functionings, the ability of local actors to achieve higher-level functionings is dependent on their recognition as legitimate securitizing agents by more powerful actors and potential partner groups.


CiS
Charles F. Mason 1, 2, * and Rémi Morin Chassé 3
1 Department of Economics and Finance, University of Wyoming, Laramie, USA
2 Grantham Research Institute, London School of Economics, London, UK
3 Department of Economics, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada
* Corresponding author
Views 217
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Publication Date: 8 May 2017
 
Abstract: The existing economics literature neglects the important role of capacity in the production of renewable energy. To fill this gap, we construct a model in which renewable energy production is tied to renewable energy capacity, which then becomes a form of capital. This capacity capital can be increased through investment, which we interpret as arising from the allocation of energy, and which therefore comes at the cost of reduced general production. Requiring societal well-being to never decline—the notion of sustainability favored by economists—we describe how society could optimally elect to split energy in this fashion, the use of non-renewable energy resources, the use of renewable energy resources, and the implied time path of societal well-being. Our model delivers an empirically satisfactory explanation for simultaneous use of non-renewable and renewable energy. We also discuss the optimality of ceasing use of non-renewable energy before the non-renewable resource stock is fully exhausted.

OF
Livia Ortolani 1, 2, * , Riccardo Bocci 2 , Paolo Bàrberi 3 , Sally Howlett 4 and Véronique Chable 5
1 Interdepartmental Centre for Agro-environmental Research "Enrico Avanzi", San Piero a Grado, Italy
2 Associazione Italiana per l'Agricoltura Biologica, Rome, Italy
3 Institute of Life Sciences, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy
4 Organic Research Centre, Hamstead Marshall, UK
5 INRA Centre Rennes-Le Rheu, Le Rheu, France
* Corresponding author
Views 195
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Publication Date: 5 May 2017
 
Abstract: The “transfer of technology”, typical of a top-down linear process of innovation cannot be used in the new contexts of sustainability, characterised by uncertainty and complexity. There is a need to redefine categories and concepts around which innovation and agricultural policies are built, as those currently in use provide only a partial representation of reality. Innovation paradigms underpinning technological development and public policies design will have a direct impact on decisions regarding which agricultural models will ultimately be supported. Looking at local learning capacity and systems of relations can help to understand the potential to develop innovation within a specific context. This work contributes to the definition of new actors who are developing innovation for sustainability in rural areas. The study focuses on the knowledge systems of farmers who are applying alternative breeding strategies: it uses a network approach to explore the knowledge system in which individual farmers are embedded in order to understand their specific relational features. Three main conclusions emerge from the study: for enhancing the agro-ecological innovation paradigm there is a need to define the ‘innovation broker’, to revise the evaluation system of public research and to integrate innovation and agricultural policies.

OF
Patrice A. Marchand
Institut Technique de l'Agriculture Biologique (ITAB), Paris, France
Views 263
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Publication Date: 19 April 2017
 
Abstract: Some of the active substances allowed in organic production are now approved as basic sub- stances under the EU plant protection products regulation. Previously, all organic farming permitted active substances were approved as conventional plant protection products. In accordance with the criteria of Article 23 of the EU regulation (EC) No 1107/2009, basic substances are granted without maximum residue limits and have a good prospect for being included in Annex II of organic farming Regulation (EC) 889/2008. In fact, most of them are already permitted in organic farming. At this stage, it seems desirable to organize applications in order to avoid duplications and to clarify strategy across Europe. This organization should be planned in order to identify corresponding knowledge and data from field experiments, and to further constitute the most crucial issues related to organic production. A work of this nature was initially supported by IFOAM-EU for lecithin, calcium hydroxide and Quassia extract. The Institut Technique de l’Agriculture Biologique (ITAB) was previously engaged in a large-scale approval plan motivated by the continuous demand for the regularization of compounds/substances already in use and has a mandate for testing and approving new compatible substances. Thus, the horsetail extract (Equisetum arvense) was the first approved basic substance and ITAB has obtained 11 of the 15 basic substances approved at the EU level.

JoHS
Threats to Security Posed by ISIS in Syria: A Human Security Approach
doi: 10.12924/johs2017.13010016 | Journal of Human Security | 2017 | Volume 13 | Issue 1
Lee-Ann Louw 1 and Hendrik Johannes Lubbe 1, *
1 Department of Law, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
* Corresponding author
Views 475
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Publication Date: 30 March 2017
 
Abstract: The civil war in Syria coupled with the attacks by ISIS, has resulted in one of the largest humanitarian crises since World War II. Although international efforts have resulted in regaining control of important cities, these military approaches have escalated and inflamed the violence of which innocent civilians bear the consequences. The continuing violence and resulting threats or insecurities negatively affect the lives, freedom, dignity and development of the people to name but a few. For that reason, the aim is to explore the applicability of a human security approach to the conflict in Syria that focuses on, among other aspects, minimising violence, mitigating the effects of the conflict, protecting people, restoring peace and eliminating the grounds that resulted in the development of these conditions in the first place.

JoHS
Ken Emmanuel Ahorsu 1, * and Yvonne Esseku 2
1 Legon Centre for International Affairs and Diplomacy (LECIAD), University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana
2 African Collaborating Centre for Pharmacovigilance, Accra, Ghana
* Corresponding author
Views 406
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Publication Date: 27 March 2017
 
Abstract: The study of the Disposal of Unused/Unwanted Medicines Project examines ways in which medicines are disposed of in Ghana and assesses how disposal methods can impact water resources. The study showed a number of challenges: gaps in the legislative framework for the disposal of medicines; environmentally-unfriendly methods of disposal of medicines; and large quantities of medicines potentially disposed of indiscriminately with major impact on the environment. It recommends a review of the legal framework to ensure the proper disposal of all unused medicines; policies to mop up excess medicines with members of the public; review of prescribing and dispensing practices to reduce excess medicines; and further research into the types of pharmaceuticals that are present and persist in the environment, their effects and how they affect quality of life.

CiS
Ricardo Omar San Carlos Arce 1 , Yuki Yoshida 1, * and Shogo Kudo 1
1 Graduate Program in Sustainability Science-Global Leadership Initiative, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo
* Corresponding author
Views 770
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Publication Date: 27 March 2017
 
Abstract: A growing number of educational programs in sustainability science has paralleled the rise of the field itself. The educational approach of these programs follows the problem-driven, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary nature of the field itself. However, its effectiveness has yet to be systematically evaluated. Similarly, while ad-hoc evaluation schemes have attempted to monitor the quality of the educational programs, there is no standard method that accounts for the particularities of sustainability science programs. This study thus addresses the need for an assessment of the problem-driven approach of educational programs in sustainability science. We have conducted student self-assessments of field courses in the Graduate Program in Sustainability Science (GPSS-GLI) at The University of Tokyo, which positions its field courses at the center of its curriculum. The self-assessments were based on five key competencies identified as particularly important for sustainability professionals. Workshops and questionnaires engaged students in a reflection of the six field courses and of their own personal development through the activities offered. Our questionnaire results indicate that the majority of participants were satisfied with how the courses furthered their personal development. While some participants expressed frustration at being unable to sufficiently address the respective field's sustainability challenges due to time constraints, students generally recognized the five key competencies as important for addressing sustainability issues after participating in the courses. Moreover, participants attributed much of their learning to their active engagement in planned field research activities, rather than to passive learning. Variations in results across different course units provide material for further analysis and development of the curriculum. This study is an initial attempt at assessment, with room for ongoing improvement and further research to address additional requirements for fostering the next generation of sustainability professionals.

CiS
Tim G. O'Higgins
Marine Governace Group, MaREI, Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
Views 629
PDF 379
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Publication Date: 20 March 2017
 
Abstract: Policies of the European Union cover a range of social, environmental and economic aspirations and the current environmental directives and laws have evolved from a suite of norms which have changed over time. These may be characterised loosely according to 'Three Ps': Practical, those taking an anthropocentric approach; Pure, those taking an ecocentric approach and Popular, those appealing to the general public. In this paper I use these three perspectives as a tool to analyse the complexity and identify contradictions in European aquatic environmental legislation. Some trade-offs between development and conservation are identified and used to characterise the potential qualities of more successful agency to achieve environmental goals in the governance of European aquatic environments.

CiS
Henrik von Wehrden 1, 2, 3, 4, * , Christopher Luederitz 3, 5 , Julia Leventon 6 and Sally Russell 7
1 Centre of Methods, Leuphana University Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany
2 FuturES Research Center, Leuphana University Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany
3 Center for Global Sustainability and Cultural Transformation, Leuphana University Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany
4 Institute of Ecology, Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany
5 SPROUT Lab, Geography and Environmental Management, Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
6 Institute of Ethics and Transdisciplinary Sustainability Research, Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany
7 Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
* Corresponding author
Views 679
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Publication Date: 20 March 2017
 
Abstract: Sustainability science encompasses a unique field that is defined through its purpose, the problem it addresses, and its solution-oriented agenda. However, this orientation creates significant methodological challenges. In this discussion paper, we conceptualize sustainability problems as wicked problems to tease out the key challenges that sustainability science is facing if scientists intend to deliver on its solution-oriented agenda. Building on the available literature, we discuss three aspects that demand increased attention for advancing sustainability science: 1) methods with higher diversity and complementarity are needed to increase the chance of deriving solutions to the unique aspects of wicked problems; for instance, mixed methods approaches are potentially better suited to allow for an approximation of solutions, since they cover wider arrays of knowledge; 2) methodologies capable of dealing with wicked problems demand strict procedural and ethical guidelines, in order to ensure their integration potential; for example, learning from solution implementation in different contexts requires increased comparability between research approaches while carefully addressing issues of legitimacy and credibility; and 3) approaches are needed that allow for longitudinal research, since wicked problems are continuous and solutions can only be diagnosed in retrospect; for example, complex dynamics of wicked problems play out across temporal patterns that are not necessarily aligned with the common timeframe of participatory sustainability research. Taken together, we call for plurality in methodologies, emphasizing procedural rigor and the necessity of continuous research to effectively addressing wicked problems as well as methodological challenges in sustainability science.

CiS
Sustainability Science in the Light of Urban Planning
doi: 10.12924/cis2017.05010026 | Challenges in Sustainability | 2017 | Volume 5 | Issue 1
François Mancebo
International Research Center on Sustainability, Rheims University, Rheims, France
Views 708
PDF 477
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Publication Date: 3 March 2017
 
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that, as part of its mission, sustainability science can change the way planners engage with urban problems on three points: First, that effective standard planning is an illusion, and the crucial task for urban planners should be considering—on a place-based rationale—the long-term consequences of decisions, policies and, technology change. Second,how it is necessary to develop collaborative planning and co-production of knowledge. Third, to build effective actions on the basis of collaborative planning, it is crucial to take first into account how the population and the institutions respond to and resist change. Conversely, this paper shows that urban planning is also a breeding ground for consolidating the theoretical framework of sustainability science, considering that cities can be seen as paragons of both socio-ecological systems and complex adaptive systems—a position that is discussed throughout the article. Bringing sustainability science and urban planning in closer dialogue with each other, to exploit their potential synergies, has not been done sufficiently: It is an important gap in the academic literature that this article aims at filling.



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