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Librello publishing house

Librello is an innovative open access academic publishing house based in Basel, Switzerland. Working on a membership basis, we decouple the payment from the publication and can afford a rigorous single-blind peer review process with no economic pressure. Authors are able to submit an unlimited number of manuscripts to all open access journals through an annual flat fee.

Latest publications

Exploring the Feasibility of Using Silage-Based Feed with Alternative Sources of Protein in Organic Pig Rations
doi: 10.12924/of2015.01010050 | Organic Farming | 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 1
Ruth C. Clements 1, * , Laura E. Higham 1 , Jo Smith 2 , Catherine L. Gerrard 2 , Mike C. Colley 1 , Konstantinos Zaralis 2 , Rebecca Nelder 2 , Bruce Pearce 2 , Annie Rayner 1 and Ashleigh Bright 1
1 FAI Farms Ltd, The Field Station, Wytham, Oxford, UK
2 The Organic Research Centre, Elm Farm, Hamstead Marshall, UK
* Corresponding author
Views 213
PDF 88
Publication Date: 5 November 2015
Abstract: Current regulations for organic pig and poultry production systems permit feed ingredients of non-organic origin at an inclusion rate of up to 5 per cent. This is primarily due to concerns that there is an insufficient supply of organic protein on the European Union market, in terms of quality and quantity, to meet the nutritional requirements of pigs and poultry raised on organic farms. However, 100 per cent organic diets for monogastric livestock will become compulsory in the EU from 1 January 2018, and there is therefore a need to develop sustainable feeding strategies based on organic feeds. This feed trial conducted in the UK explores the feasibility of using a silage-based feeding system for Gloucester Old Spot pigs, and compares the inclusion of soya, beans and peas as protein sources in terms of pig growth performance. No significant difference in the pen mean daily live weight gain was observed during the grower phase (pen mean age of 11-14 weeks) between the diet groups. However, during the finisher phase (pen mean age of 15-22 weeks), pigs on the soya and pea rations had significantly faster growth rates than pigs fed the bean ration. It is speculated that the slight shortfall in growth rate observed in the pigs fed the bean ration may be offset by the lower cost of production of beans in the UK. This feasibility trial demonstrates that a 100 per cent organic diet for pigs using alternative, locally-grown sources of protein as part of a forage-based ration can provide a viable alternative to a soya-based diet.

A Review of 'Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture. Studies in Pre-Modern Organic'
doi: 10.12924/of2015.01010046 | Organic Farming | 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 1
Marco Pautasso
Animal & Plant Health Unit, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
Views 184
PDF 186
Publication Date: 7 October 2015
Abstract: This brilliant and original book by Jan Zadoks, a renowned, prolific and polyglot Dutch plant epidemiologist [2], provides a systematic, learned and well-structured overview of our understanding of medieval crop protection in Europe.

Sustainability of Fiscal Policy in Democracies and Autocracies
doi: 10.12924/cis2015.03010001 | Challenges in Sustainability | 2015 | Volume 3 | Issue 1
Stefan Wurster
Institute for Political Science, Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg
Views 274
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Publication Date: 30 September 2015
Abstract: This paper tries to identify the fiscal sustainability record of democratically and autocratically governed countries by applying various performance indicators (credit worthiness, payment defaults, national debt, foreign assets) and also to clarify what effect the characteristics of a regime have on consolidation efforts in a country. The study identifies two key findings. While in the past, democracies have clearly found it easier to preserve their credit standing and solvency and to avoid government bankruptcy, a similar advantage can no longer be detected for democracies in terms of reducing national debt and foreign debts. Why democracies, in spite of their arrangements with a sensitivity for the public good and for due process, are finding it so difficult to avoid shifting their debts to future generations, to undertake cutback measures and to provide sufficient financial foresight, can in principle be interpreted as the other side of the coin, namely highly presence-oriented interests boosted even further through the short "democracy-specific time horizon".

Educational Pathways to Remote Employment in Isolated Communities
doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010034 | Journal of Human Security | 2015 | Volume 11 | Issue 1
David Denkenberger 1, 2 , Julia Way 1, 3 and Joshua M. Pearce 1, 4, 5, *
1 Michigan Tech Open Sustainability Technology (MOST) Lab, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
2 Civil and Architectural Engineering, Tennessee State University, TN, USA
3 Career Development Education, Michigan Tech Career Services, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
4 Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
5 Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
* Corresponding author
Views 230
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Publication Date: 29 September 2015
Abstract: Those who live in isolated communities often lack reliable, skilled employment opportunities, which fundamentally undermines their human security. For individuals who wish to remain in their isolated communities for family, religious, philosophical or other reasons, their attachment to their communities creates a disincentive for higher education. This promotes low educational achievement, which in turn results in low socioeconomic status, lack of social mobility, and a generational cycle of poverty. The human misery that results from such a feedback loop is observed in isolated communities throughout North America, including aboriginal communities in Canada. Fortunately, maturation of information and communication technologies now offers individuals the potential to gain high-skilled employment while living in an isolated community, using both (i) virtual work/remote work and (ii) remote training and education. To examine that potential, this study: 1) categorizes high-skill careers that demand a higher education and are widely viable for remote work, 2) examines options for obtaining the required education remotely, and 3) performs an economic analysis of investing in remote education, quantifying the results in return on investment. The results show that the Internet has now opened up the possibility of both remote education and remote work. Though the investment in college education is significant, there are loans available and the return on investment is generally far higher than the interest rate on the loans. The results identified several particularly promising majors and dozens of high-income careers. The ability to both obtain an education and employment remotely offers the potential to lift many people living in isolated communities out of poverty, reduce inequality overall, and provide those living in isolated communities with viable means of employment security, which not only allows personal sustainability, but also the potential for personal growth.

Notes from the Field: The Humanitarian Crisis in Ukraine
doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010027 | Journal of Human Security | 2015 | Volume 11 | Issue 1
John M Quinn
Prague Center for Global Health, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University of Medicine Prague, Czech Republic
Views 844
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Publication Date: 9 July 2015
Abstract: Humanitarian crises are politically and socially charged, and as actors, donors and organizations move in to help, duplication of services can ensue. Despite the influx of humanitarian actors into the war zone of eastern Ukraine, more are still needed to address immediate threat to the health of more than 5 million at-risk people in the area. The humanitarian disaster in Ukraine requires fast support and stakeholder involvement to mitigate preventable death among at-risk populations. As the crisis unfolds and many more people are caught in the crossfire with no health security, WHO is leading the charge to organize healthcare and humanitarian action to relive human suffering and engender health security for all.

100% Organic Poultry Feed: Can Algae Replace Soybean Expeller in Organic Broiler Diets?
doi: 10.12924/of2015.01010038 | Organic Farming | 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 1
Catherine L. Gerrard 1, * , Jo Smith 1 , Rebecca Nelder 1 , Ashleigh Bright 2 , Mike Colley 2 , Ruth Clements 2 and Bruce D. Pearce 1
1 The Organic Research Centre Elm Farm Hamstead Marshall, UK
2 FAI Farms The John Krebbs Field Station Wytham, Oxford, UK
* Corresponding author
Views 888
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Publication Date: 7 May 2015
Abstract: Current EU regulations allow 5% of feed for organic poultry to come from non-organic production. This is due to concerns about a 100% organic diet meeting the requirements for specific amino acids such as methionine. This exception is due to end on 31st December 2017. While this may match consumer expectations, protein sourced from global organic production may have a negative impact on perceptions of organic poultry in other ways. Soybean is a commonly used ingredient in poultry feed but soybean production has negative environmental and social impacts. Consumers may also prefer organic poultry to have been fed on locally produced feed and, indeed, this would be in line with organic principles. Preliminary feasibility feed trials were carried out during a summer and a winter season using organic broilers in the UK to test three 100% organic feeds: a control diet with globally sourced ingredients including soybean expeller, a diet based on locally sourced (i.e. within Europe) organic ingredients, and a diet based on locally sourced organic ingredients and algae (a good source of methionine). The results of the summer feed trial showed that there were no significant differences in broiler weight gains. In the winter feed trial differences were found. There was a significant difference (P = 0.034) in weight gain between the local feed (lower weight gain) and the local feed with algae but no significant difference between the control diet with soybean and the two local diets. These preliminary feed trials indicate that there is no significant impact on broiler performance or animal welfare parameters when replacing soybean with European protein sources, possibly including algae, suggesting that, although the research is still at a very early stage, such feeds may be a viable option for 100% organic poultry feed in the future.

A Review of 'Humanitarian Intervention and Legitimacy Wars: Seeking Peace and Justice in the 21st Century'
doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010026 | Journal of Human Security | 2015 | Volume 11 | Issue 1
Leah Merchant
Department of Political Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Views 598
PDF 676
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Publication Date: 27 April 2015
Abstract: In his book Humanitarian Intervention and Legitimacy Wars: Seeking Peace and Justice in the 21st Century, Richard Falk argues that, with the growing prevalence of soft power, historical lessons of asymmetric warfare and legitimacy wars must be taken into account. Falk rejects the realist notion that the state is the only rational actor, offering a more constructivist approach that focuses on the norms, culture and morality of the international community. He asserts that humanitarian intervention is on the decline, and legitimacy wars are increasing. Much of this legitimacy is based on international law and its relevance in the international community.

A New Evaluation Culture Is Inevitable
doi: 10.12924/of2015.01010036 | Organic Farming | 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 1
Jack B. Spaapen
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, PO Box 19121, 1000 GC Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Views 574
PDF 625
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Publication Date: 23 April 2015
Abstract: Changes in the production of research (more collaborative, more inter- and transdisciplinary, more oriented towards societal demand) are influencing the ways in which research is evaluated. Traditional methods of evaluation primarily focussing on the production of scientific articles have long since given way to more comprehensive methods in which researchers’ other activities are assessed too. Beyond these developments, evaluation also involves research endeavours concerning collaboration with other stakeholders in society, such as industry, NGO’s, consumer groups, or governmental organisations.

Applications of Open Source 3-D Printing on Small Farms
doi: 10.12924/of2015.01010019 | Organic Farming | 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 1
Joshua M. Pearce 1, 2
1 Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
2 Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
Views 1861
PDF 1715
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Publication Date: 16 April 2015
Abstract: There is growing evidence that low-cost open-source 3-D printers can reduce costs by enabling distributed manufacturing of substitutes for both specialty equipment and conventional mass-manufactured products. The rate of 3-D printable designs under open licenses is growing exponentially and there arealready hundreds of designs applicable to small-scale organic farming. It has also been hypothesized that this technology could assist sustainable development in rural communities that rely on small-scale organic agriculture. To gauge the present utility of open-source 3-D printers in this organic farm context both in the developed and developing world, this paper reviews the current open-source designs available and evaluates the ability of low-cost 3-D printers to be effective at reducing the economic costs of farming.This study limits the evaluation of open-source 3-D printers to only the most-developed fused filament fabrication of the bioplastic polylactic acid (PLA). PLA is a strong biodegradable and recyclable thermoplastic appropriate for a range of representative products, which are grouped into five categories of prints: handtools, food processing, animal management, water management and hydroponics. The advantages and shortcomings of applying 3-D printing to each technology are evaluated. The results show a general izabletechnical viability and economic benefit to adopting open-source 3-D printing for any of the technologies, although the individual economic impact is highly dependent on needs and frequency of use on a specific farm. Capital costs of a 3-D printer may be saved from on-farm printing of a single advanced analytical instrument in a day or replacing hundreds of inexpensive products over a year. In order for the full potential of open-source 3-D printing to be realized to assist organic farm economic resiliency and self-sufficiency, future work is outlined in five core areas: designs of 3-D printable objects, 3-D printing materials, 3-Dprinters, software and 3-D printable repositories.

Strategies towards Evaluation beyond Scientific Impact. Pathways not only for Agricultural Research
doi: 10.12924/of2015.01010003 | Organic Farming | 2015 | Volume 1 | Issue 1
Birge M. Wolf 1, * , Anna-Maria Häring 2 and Jürgen Heß 1
1 University of Kassel, Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, Organic Farming & Cropping Systems, Nordbahnhofstr. 1a, 37214 Witzenhausen, Germany
2 Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development, Department Policy and Markets in the Agro-Food Sector, Schicklerstr. 5, 16225 Eberswalde, Germany
* Corresponding author
Views 1240
PDF 1077
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Publication Date: 15 April 2015

Various research fields, like organic agricultural research, are dedicated to solving real-world problems and contributing to sustainable development. Therefore, systems research and the application of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches are increasingly endorsed. However, research performance depends not only on self-conception, but also on framework conditions of the scientific system, which are not always of benefit to such research fields. Recently, science and its framework conditions have been under increasing scrutiny as regards their ability to serve societal benefit. This provides opportunities for (organic) agricultural research to engage in the development of a research system that will serve its needs. This article focuses on possible strategies for facilitating a balanced research evaluation that recognises scientific quality as well as societal relevance and applicability. These strategies are (a) to strengthen the general support for evaluation beyond scientific impact, and (b) to provide accessible data for such evaluations. Synergies of interest are found between open access movements and research communities focusing on global challenges and sustainability. As both are committed to increasing the societal benefit of science, they may support evaluation criteria such as knowledge production and dissemination tailored to societal needs, and the use of open access. Additional synergies exist between all those who scrutinise current research evaluation systems for their ability to serve scientific quality, which is also a precondition for societal benefit. Here, digital communication technologies provide opportunities to increase effectiveness, transparency, fairness and plurality in the dissemination of scientific results, quality assurance and reputation. Furthermore, funders may support transdisciplinary approaches and open access and improve data availability for evaluation beyond scientific impact. If they begin to use current research information systems that include societal impact data while reducing the requirements for narrative reports, documentation burdens on researchers may be relieved, with the funders themselves acting as data providers for researchers, institutions and tailored dissemination beyond academia.

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