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Librello is an innovative open access academic publishing house based in Basel, Switzerland. Working on a membership basis, we decouple the payment from the publication and can afford a rigorous single-blind peer review process with no economic pressure. Authors are able to submit an unlimited number of manuscripts to all open access journals through an annual flat fee.

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Editorial 2020
doi: 10.12924/johs2020.16010001 | Journal of Human Security | 2020 | Volume 16 | Issue 1
Sabina Lautensach 1, 2, 3
1 Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Human Security, Librello, Basel, Switzerland
2 Human Security Institute, Canada
3 University of Northern British Columbia, Terrace, BC, V8G 4A2, Canada
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Publication Date: 28 February 2020

Dear Reader,

As the 21st century unfolds before us and humanity passed the eight-billion mark, global challange to human security are increasing in number and magnitude. The current coronavirus pandemic reminds us that the health- related pillar of human security plays no minor part in this escalation. The pandemic has followed first resport of a novel kind of pneumonia on 8 December 2019. From 31 December, when the outbreak was reported to the WHO, the epidemic was official. Current time courses of morbidity and mortality indicate that an inflection point has not yet been reached. According to a Lancet Global Health report [1], 45 204 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were confirmed as of 12 February, and 1116 deaths had been reported in twenty-five countries. More recently, the WHO [2] reported 77 923 cases in twenty-nine countries and 2361 deaths as of 22 February.

Erika Julieta Rojas Ospina
Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
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Publication Date: 14 January 2020
Abstract: With the purge of the Military Forces and the creation of a new National Civilian Police (PNC) as mandated by the 1992 Peace Accords, El Salvador set the stage for the construction of a less state-oriented security approach. However, a failure to question issues of security and a lack of consideration of gender in the Peace negotiations and the Security Reform resulted in an overly gendered understanding of security, were the State remained as its subject and the practice privileged a militarized masculinity that has hindered the implementation of democratic policing. In this context, 25 years after the Peace Accords, the police have been unable to consolidate a democratic policing practice as oppressive policing strategies remain deeply embedded in the institution, side-by-side with heavy-handed measures that use repression to control social violence. From a feminist critical security approach, the article questions the gendered nature of security in El Salvador, and investigates the implication of the introduction of militaries into the work of the police, in terms of its symbolic influence in the gendered expectations of police men and women, and the practical impact it has on their work, e.g., the difficulty of consolidating Community-Oriented Policing. The argument is based on interviews and focus groups with police men and women, as well as with feminist organizations. The information was gathered during fieldwork in 2018 and 2019, and through extensive literature review.

Sonja K. Birthisel 1, * , Grace A. Smith 2 , Gavriela M. Mallory 3 , Jianjun Hao 1 and Eric R. Gallandt 1
1 Ecology and Environmental Sciences Program, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA
2 Molecular and Biomedical Sciences Department, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA
3 Biology Department, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA, USA
* Corresponding author
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Publication Date: 30 December 2019
Abstract: Soil solarization using clear plastic is a promising weed management strategy for organic farms in the Northeast USA. Based on grower concerns that the practice might negatively affect beneficial soil microbiota, we conducted experiments to measure the effects of 2 and 4 weeks of solarization in a field and a closed greenhouse. Soil microbial communities were assayed by dilution plating on semi-selective agar media. Populations of general bacteria, general fungi, bacilli, and florescent pseudomonads were unaffected by field solarization, but fluorescent pseudomonads were reduced following greenhouse solarization. At plastic removal, soil biological activity was reduced non-significantly in the field and by 45% in the green- house. Soil biological activity fluctuated following field solarization, being significantly suppressed at 5 but not 14 days after plastic removal. In the greenhouse, biological activity remained suppressed up to 28 days after plastic removal. Solarization increased available nitrogen in the field and greenhouse. Four weeks of solarization reduced viability of buried weed seeds by 64% in the field and 98% in the greenhouse, indicating that the practice can cause substantial weed seed mortality. Maximum soil temperatures, measured at 10 cm depth under solarization, were 44◦ C in the field and 50◦ C in the greenhouse; temperatures were theoretically sufficient for the reduction of some soil borne pathogens. A subsequent experiment measured the effects of solarization and tarping (black plastic) on soil biological activity. During mulching, biological activity was unaffected by treatment, but 14 days after plastic removal, biological activity was reduced in the solarized treatment as compared with the control. Overall, these results suggest that solarization can deplete the weed seedbank. Although soil biological activity was reduced by solarization, it may bounce back after a period. Greenhouse solarization achieved higher temperatures and was more lethal to weed seeds and some microbiota than field solarization.

Sonja K. Birthisel 1, * and Eric R. Gallandt 1
1 Ecology and Environmental Sciences Program, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA
* Corresponding author
Views 547
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Publication Date: 30 December 2019
Abstract: Stale seedbeds are commonly used by organic vegetable farmers to reduce in-season weed density. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of soil solarization (clear plastic) with subsequent flaming for stale seedbed preparation. A secondary objective was to compare the efficacy of solarization with tarping (black plastic). Solarization is an established weed management practice in warmer climates, but its efficacy in the humid continental Northeast USA was unknown. We hypothesized that solarization during May-June in Maine, USA would increase weed emergence, and could thereby contribute to depletion of the germinable weed seedbank and, with subsequent flaming, creation of an improved stale seedbed. We expected that firming soil with a roller prior to solarization would further increase weed emergence. Across four site-years of replicated field experiments and two on-farm trials we found that, contrary to expectations, 2 weeks of solarization reduced apparent weed emergence (density) in comparison to nonsolarized controls by 83% during treatment, and 78% after 2 weeks of observation following plastic removal and flaming. Rolling did not significantly affect weed density. Soil temperatures were elevated in solarized plots, reaching a maximum of 47◦ C at 5 cm soil depth, compared to 38◦ C in controls. Weed community analyses suggested that solarization might act as an ecological filter limiting some species. Addressing our secondary objective, two replicated field experiments compared the efficacy of solarization with tarping applied for periods of 2, 4, and 6 weeks beginning in July. Across treatment durations, solarization was more effective than tarping in one site-year, but tarping outperformed solarization in the other; this discrepancy may be explained by differences in weed species and soil temperatures between experiments. Overall, solarization and tarping are promising stale seedbed preparation methods for humid continental climates, but more work is needed to compare their relative efficacy.

Ingrid L.P. Nyborg 1, * , Jaishankar Ganapathy 2 and Ajmal Nimruzi 1
1 Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
2 Norwegian Police University College, Olso, Norway
* Corresponding author
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Publication Date: 23 October 2019
Abstract: In Afghanistan, police reform is an important focus of international efforts. After over a decade of assistance, however, there are still daunting challenges of public trust and police effectiveness. From a civilian perspective, the role of the police is a crucial one—and very different from that of the military. Communities, being at the very heart of security challenges, are well positioned to understand the intricacies of security and development. A police service able to work closely with communities plays an important role in managing conflict in the long run. Recognizing this, Afghanistan’s Ministry of Interior Affairs (MoIA) has steadily increased its efforts in community-oriented policing (COP), despite a deteriorating security situation since the withdrawal of US troops in 2014.
This paper explores how COP in Afghanistan links with local communities and institutions to ensure both peoples’ security and trust. It begins by considering police-community relations through a broad lens of human security, which comprises the social, economic, political, cultural and legal aspects of their everyday lives. We then examine international assistance to police reform, how the Afghan police have developed their COP philosophy, and how this has played out in re-defining police-community relations. Using field data from Nimruz Province, we then look at the role of local institutions of chowkidari and shura in addressing people’s insecurities, and opportunities for linking these with COP efforts of the police. We conclude that there is a real potential for COP in Afghanistan that his locally owned and sustainable, if enough attention is given to inclusive processes and developing creative and flexible trust-building relationships with local institutions and organizations.

Sofia Baltazar 1, * , Raphaël Boutsen 2 , Lieven Delanote 3 , Vincent Delobel 4 , Karel Dewaele 3 , Willem Stoop 5 and Marjolein Visser 2
1 University of Namur, Namur, Belgium
2 Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
3 Inagro VZW, Rumbeke-Beitem, Belgium
4 Chèvrerie de la Croix de la Grise, Havinnes, Belgium
5 Consult: R&D for Tropical Agriculture, Driebergen-Rijsenburg, The Netherlands
* Corresponding author
Views 1227
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Publication Date: 2 October 2019

In Belgium and The Netherlands, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is getting attention within a growing movement looking for more sustainability of wheat cropping and breadmaking. The few varieties available are pure lines that do not match the wide range of environments and organic farming practices, so that yields and milling quality are often disappointing. Composite Cross Populations (CCP) have been created with the idea of evolutionary plant breeding through on-farm mass selection and seed saving. In 2015–2016, one such CCP of winter wheat was cropped side by side with a pure line variety in four organic farms with different wheat cropping practices, as a first step to answer some of the concerns arising from farmers’ networks we work with. Seeding rates ranged from the standard high to the very low ones practiced under the System of Wheat Intensification (SWI). Multivariate data analysis confirmed greater differentiation of the CCP both compared with pure line varieties and within populations on farms where inter-plant competition was less intense. Low seeding rates thus seem to enhance the phenotypic expression potential of a CCP, yet this is a neglected fact among participatory plant breeders. Since both CCP and SWI have great potential for ecological intensification within organic farming, we argue that more work is needed on finding new ways of combining innovation in farming practices and on-farm plant breeding, which also implies new ways of organising research.

Meike Grosse 1, * , Thorsten Haase 2 and Jürgen Heß 3
1 Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Müncheberg, Germany
2 Landesbetrieb Landwirtschaft Hessen, Kassel, Germany
3 University of Kassel, Witzenhausen, Germany
* Corresponding author
Views 985
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Publication Date: 16 September 2019

The nitrogen supply can be a yield-limiting factor in organic farming, especially when reduced tillage is applied. An organic field experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2013 to analyse the potential of the nitrogen supply through the efficient use of green manure crops in different tillage systems. Three farming systems were compared: a stubble cleaner system (SC) and a plough system (PL), both in a cereal-based crop rotation, and another plough system in a crop rotation that included alfalfa grass ley (PLALF). In the fifth year of the experiment, the experimental design was extended into a split plot design, and seven green manure treatments (Lolium perenne, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Sinapis alba, a mixture of Sinapis alba and Trifolium resupinatum, Trifolium resupinatum, Vicia sativa, and bare fallow as the control) were integrated into each of the three systems. The effects of the three systems and the green manure treatments on N mineralization, the soil microbial biomass and the yield of the main crops of oats and field beans in the sixth and seventh years of the experiment were analysed. The results showed that the choice of green manure species was of minor importance in the PLALF system. This system generally success- fully supplied N to the oats with oat yields from 3.6 to 5.1 t per ha.Vicia sativa was the most promising green manure crop in the SC and PL systems, with the Nmin values and oat yields (4.0 and 4.6 t per ha) being similar to those in the PLALF system. In the subsequent year, the PLALF system again was more successful in most of the Nmin assessments than the PL and SC systems, which often had rather similar results. In addition, a main crop of field beans was able to compensate for the differences in the Nmin content, and the yields were similar in all three systems (3.1 to 3.7 t per ha). The microbial biomass in the top soil was significantly increased in the reduced tillage system compared to the plough systems. In conclusion, reduced tillage in organic farming can promote soil microorganisms and be competitive if the nitrogen supply is improved through the efficient use of green manure or an adequate leguminous main crop.

An Expert Elicitation of Public Acceptance of Renewable Energy in Kenya
doi: 10.12924/cis2019.07010030 | Challenges in Sustainability | 2019 | Volume 7 | Issue 1
Bob van der Zwaan 1, 2, 3, 4, * , Francesco Dalla Longa 1 , Helena de Boer 1 , Francis Johnson 5 , Oliver Johnson 5 , Marieke van Klaveren 1 , Jessanne Mastop 1 , Mbeo Ogeya 5 , Mariëlle Rietkerk 1 , Koen Straver 1 and Hannah Wanjiru 5
1 Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN-TNO), Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2 School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University , Bologna, Italy
3 Van 't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4 Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
5 Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Nairobi, Kenya
* Corresponding author
Views 1102
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Publication Date: 3 September 2019

This article reports evidence for substantial public support for the large-scale deployment of three renewable energy options in Kenya: wind, solar PV, and geothermal energy. With these renewable technologies, the government of Kenya could make a large contribution to reaching its national commitment under the Paris Agreement. Prices, infrastructural needs, and land-use requirements importantly contribute to shaping public opinion about these renewable energy alternatives, in different ways and directions for wind, PV, and geothermal energy. While overall the evaluation of these technologies is positive, public authorities should be wary of the possible inconveniences and drawbacks associated with them. Anticipating and, where possible, mitigating these shortcomings in national climate and energy development plans could preclude some of them becoming possible hindrances for broad-scale adoption of wind, PV, and geothermal energy. Furthering quantitative public acceptance studies, like the one presented here based on (semi-)expert elicitation and information-choice questionnaires, can assist in Kenya fully reaching its national climate and energy ambitions. More generally, we argue that the establishment of affordable, clean, and secure energy systems, as well as the mitigation of global climate change, can benefit from stakeholder engagement and public survey analysis like the one performed in our study – in developing countries as much as in the developed part of the world.

Fermented Leaf Fertilizers—Principles and Preparation
doi: 10.12924/of2019.05010014 | Organic Farming | 2019 | Volume 5 | Issue 1
Roland Ebel 1, * and Susanne Kissmann 2
1 Montana State University, Montana, USA
2 Intercultural Maya University of Quintana Roo, Quintana Roo, Mexico
* Corresponding author
Views 1375
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Publication Date: 6 August 2019

Fermented leaf fertilizers (FLF) are made of anaerobically fermented plant and/or animal resources and principally used for foliar plant nutrition, as they provide a quick nutrient supply, especially of micronutrients. Their use is most common in horticultural production as a complementary measure to organic basal fertilization in the case of nutrient deficiencies. Since FLF are commonly made of farm residues, their formulation varies according to the available resources and the treated crops. The most common raw materials are cattle manure, cow milk, cane molasses, and water. Within Latin America, the production of FLF is popular with smallholders. Most of these farmers produce them on-farm using adapted plastic barrels as fermenters. Industrial production is conceivable. FLF have been successfully tested in banana, bean, broccoli, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, maize, papaya, and spinach production. This review highlights the principles of this sustainable and promising organic fertilization strategy, emphasizing the preparation of FLF.

Nawab Bahadar 1, * , Shakir Ullah 1 , Ingrid Nyborg 2 and Tahir Maqsood 1
1 COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad, Pakistan
2 Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
* Corresponding author
Views 6534
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Publication Date: 26 July 2019
Abstract: Community-police relations in Pakistan are often intricate, as are their reforms. Mistrust, political intervention, meager financial resources, lack of educated/trained human resources, over-expectations and miscommunication are some of the factors contributing to weak policing and poor community-police relations. The police as a service-oriented public institution has been a demand of the public and the dream of consecutive governments. In this study, we explore the political, institutional and technical reforms taken by the government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and the police department to improve their police and policing. The Police Act 2017 and Community-Oriented Policing, Dispute Resolution Councils (DRCs), and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) initiatives are critically analyzed in terms of their intentions and contribution to improved police-community relations. Politicians, police, civil society organizations and community members from KP were interviewed for their perceptions of police reforms and community-police relations. The study finds strong political will to empower and depoliticize police, and to shift its focus from purely crime fighting into community service provision, including pro-active engagement of police with the community. The study also finds that most of the new initiatives of the government of KP are in the spirit of community--oriented policing, and community members see visible improvement in policing and community-police relations.

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