Volume 1, Issue 2 (2013)

doi: 10.12924/si2013.01020084 | Volume 1 (2013) | Issue 2
Evelyn L. Forget 1, * , Alexander Peden 1 and Stephenson Strobel 1
1 Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Canada
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 6 September 2013
Abstract: The austerity movement in high-income countries of Europe and North America has renewed calls for a guaranteed Basic Income. At the same time, conditional and unconditional cash transfers accompanied by rigorous impact evaluations have been conducted in low- and middle-income countries with the explicit support of the World Bank. Both Basic Income and cash transfer programs are more confidently designed when based on empirical evidence and social theory that explain how and why cash transfers to citizens are effective ways of encour­aging investment in human capital through health and education spending. Are conditional cash transfers more effective and/or more efficient than unconditional transfers? Are means-tested transfers effective? This essay draws explicit parallels between Basic Income and unconditional cash transfers, and demonstrates that cash transfers to citizens work in remarkably similar ways in low-, middle- and high-income countries. It addresses the theoretical foundation of cash transfers. Of the four theories discussed, three explicitly acknowledge the interdependence of society and are based, in increasingly complex ways, on ideas of social inclusion. Only if we have an understanding of how cash transfers affect decision-making can we address questions of how best to design cash transfer schemes.

doi: 10.12924/si2013.01020092 | Volume 1 (2013) | Issue 2
Hanna Wikström 1, 2, * and Thomas Johansson 3
1 Department of Social Work, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
2 Faculty of Law, University of Uppsala, Sweden
3 Department of Pedagogy, Learning and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 25 October 2013
Abstract: Based on the assumption that credibility assessments function as 'normative leak­age' within the asylum process, we analyse how narratives of gender and class are articulated, rendered meaningful, or silenced in credibility assessments. Two cases concerning male applic­ants are selected in order to illustrate these processes. In relation to the existing concepts of internal/external credibility, we wish to introduce the concept of social credibility, which focuses on how the assessors read different socio-cultural narratives. While previous research has shown that the postcolonial will to protect women favours women as victims of patriarchal cul­tures, we wish to point out the continuity of this line of argumentation in relation to male and female applicants by adopting a theoretical generalization: male applicants instead become situated at the other end of the spectrum of postcolonial notions of modernity as non-victims, victims of other circumstances or perpetrators. We argue that these processes are accentuated in relation to credibility assessments. In order to prevent processes of social exclusion and to enhance inclusive practice, authorities need to acknowledge the 'normative leakage' associated with the assessment process.

doi: 10.12924/si2013.01020102 | Volume 1 (2013) | Issue 2
Sally Tomlinson
Department of Education, University of Oxford, UK
Publication Date: 11 November 2013
Abstract: National governments believe that higher levels of educational attainments and training are necessary for successful competition in knowledge-driven economies and all young people are urged to invest in their own human capital and learn new skills. Moves towards inclusive education have brought into mainstream schools and colleges many who would formerly have been segregated in special schooling or otherwise given minimum education, joining those simply regarded as lower attainers. More research is needed on what is happening to all these young people who do not do well in competitive education systems and uncertain job markets. This article is taken from a study which set out to discuss with school and college principals, local administrators, teachers and others, who they regard as lower attainers, what sort of education and training programmes are offered to the students, and what policies they think are in place to help young people into work or independent living. Discussions were held with respondents in England, Germany, the USA, Finland and Malta. The article takes Rawls' view that social injustice is mainly due to the inequitable distribution of economic and social resources and the State has a responsibility to ensure that all young people can participate in the economy and the society.

doi: 10.12924/si2013.01020113 | Volume 1 (2013) | Issue 2
Maria Amparo Cruz-Saco 1, 2, * and Mónika López-Anuarbe 1
1 Economics Department, Connecticut College, USA
2 Research Center (CIUP), Universidad del Pacífico, Peru
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 21 November 2013
Abstract: This paper analyzes the financial support and inclusiveness within Hispanic families in New London, Connecticut, and the causes of their social exclusion in the larger society. We designed and administered a survey of 114 items that was answered by 148 participants rep­resenting 1.3% of the non-Puerto Rican Hispanic population. Using factor analysis, we reduced a large number of items in two familism scores to four latent factors: "Financial Support for Family", "Obligation to Family", "Plan to Return", and "Filial Responsibility". We found that fin­ancial support for family and obligation to family are strongly endorsed by participants. Approx­imately one-half would return back to their home countries where they believe to be happier. One-fifth rejects this option. Three-quarters of participants remit money to family, parents in particular, who reside in countries of origin. In contrast to other studies, remitting money is not affected by any given personal characteristic such as gender, income or level of education. Sim­ilarly, participants remit irrespective of their degree of self-reported familism measured by scores on the latent factors. A large incidence of poverty among this population, lack of English proficiency, low skills, immigration status, and a lack of voice and political representation inhibit their social inclusion.

doi: 10.12924/si2013.01020126 | Volume 1 (2013) | Issue 2
Peter Kivisto 1, 2
1 Sociology Department, Augustana College, USA
2 Department of General History, University of Turku, Finland
Publication Date: 5 December 2013
Abstract: This paper offers a review and conceptual reflection on fears about the Muslim pres­ence and lack of inclusion into Western European societies and the core features of criticisms of multiculturalism. It does so by first addressing the misreadings of Islam and multiculturalism in influential works by Christopher Caldwell and Paul Scheffer. It then addresses the main points of their critiques by examining the role of the state in Muslim incorporation, framing multicultur­alism theoretically in terms of claims-making, and offering evidence of the ways in which Muslim claims-making has occurred.

doi: 10.12924/si2013.01020136 | Volume 1 (2013) | Issue 2
Andrew J. Haig 1, 2
1 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan Health System, USA
2 International Rehabilitation Forum, USA
Publication Date: 27 December 2013
Abstract: A confident statement in Social Inclusion by Mannon and MacLacLan that disability is not a health problem places doubt on the rationale of their otherwise well-written research agenda for disability studies. Both by definition and in practice disability is in part about the impact of health on a person's functioning. The consequence of this misperception among social policy makers is a decreased emphasis on the resources and research needed to build medical rehabilitation programs. This is especially true in lower resource countries where naive inclusion of medical rehabillitation within community based rehabilitation strategies has resulted in fewer resources and less expertise to deliver the distinctly different, and well validated services of a medical rehabilitation team. Any rational research agenda on disability must focus on disease and medical rehabilitation as well as the psychological, social, and environmental factors discussed in this article.

pp. 139-141
doi: 10.12924/si2013.01020139 | Volume 1 (2013) | Issue 2
Malcolm MacLachlan 1, 2, * and Hasheem Mannan 1, 3
1 Centre for Global Health & School of Psychology, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
2 Centre for Rehabilitation Studies, Stellenbosch University, South Africa
3 Nossal Institute for Global Health, University of Melbourne, Australia
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 27 December 2013
Abstract: We welcome Andrew Haig's critique of our paper, "Disability & Health: A research agenda" [1] in Social Inclusion. Our paper sought to identify research priorities to better understand, provide enhanced services and a better quality of life for people with disabilities, particularly in relation to their health and wellbeing. Haig's [2] critique makes several important points that deserve serious consideration. His comments reflect a view of the relationship between disability and health which is different from the one we have espoused. Specifically, Haig argues that (a) disability is a health problem, (b) medical rehabilitation should be separated from Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR), and (c) the evidence base for medical rehabilitation is much stronger than for CBR. We address each of these points below arguing that while some types of disability clearly result from health problems; often disability is not experienced as a health problem; and sometimes, disability in interaction with restricted access is the cause of health problems.

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