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Librello publishing house


Librello is an innovative open access academic publishing house based in Basel, Switzerland. Working on a membership basis, we decouple the payment from the publication and can afford a rigorous single-blind peer review process with no economic pressure. Authors are able to submit an unlimited number of manuscripts to all open access journals through an annual flat fee.

Latest publications

OF
Fermented Leaf Fertilizers—Principles and Preparation
doi: 10.12924/of2019.05010014 | Organic Farming | 2019 | Volume 5 | Issue 1
Roland Ebel 1, * and Susanne Kissmann 2
1 Montana State University, Montana, USA
2 Intercultural Maya University of Quintana Roo, Quintana Roo, Mexico
* Corresponding author
Views 98
PDF 86
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Publication Date: 6 August 2019
 
Abstract:

Fermented leaf fertilizers (FLF) are made of anaerobically fermented plant and/or animal resources and principally used for foliar plant nutrition, as they provide a quick nutrient supply, especially of micronutrients. Their use is most common in horticultural production as a complementary measure to organic basal fertilization in the case of nutrient deficiencies. Since FLF are commonly made of farm residues, their formulation varies according to the available resources and the treated crops. The most common raw materials are cattle manure, cow milk, cane molasses, and water. Within Latin America, the production of FLF is popular with smallholders. Most of these farmers produce them on-farm using adapted plastic barrels as fermenters. Industrial production is conceivable. FLF have been successfully tested in banana, bean, broccoli, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, maize, papaya, and spinach production. This review highlights the principles of this sustainable and promising organic fertilization strategy, emphasizing the preparation of FLF.


JoHS
Nawab Bahadar 1, * , Shakir Ullah 1 , Ingrid Nyborg 2 and Tahir Maqsood 1
1 COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad, Pakistan
2 Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
* Corresponding author
Views 2512
PDF 1520
HTML 569
Publication Date: 26 July 2019
 
Abstract: Community-police relations in Pakistan are often intricate, as are their reforms. Mistrust, political intervention, meager financial resources, lack of educated/trained human resources, over-expectations and miscommunication are some of the factors contributing to weak policing and poor community-police relations. The police as a service-oriented public institution has been a demand of the public and the dream of consecutive governments. In this study, we explore the political, institutional and technical reforms taken by the government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and the police department to improve their police and policing. The Police Act 2017 and Community-Oriented Policing, Dispute Resolution Councils (DRCs), and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) initiatives are critically analyzed in terms of their intentions and contribution to improved police-community relations. Politicians, police, civil society organizations and community members from KP were interviewed for their perceptions of police reforms and community-police relations. The study finds strong political will to empower and depoliticize police, and to shift its focus from purely crime fighting into community service provision, including pro-active engagement of police with the community. The study also finds that most of the new initiatives of the government of KP are in the spirit of community--oriented policing, and community members see visible improvement in policing and community-police relations.

JoHS
Tahir Maqsood 1, * , Sajjad A. Madani 1 , Bahadar Nawab 1 , Shakir Ullah 1 and Ingrid Nyborg 2
1 COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Pakistan
2 Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
* Corresponding author
Views 1022
PDF 668
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Publication Date: 17 July 2019
 
Abstract: Community-oriented policing (COP) as a model has found widespread acceptance throughout the world both in developed and developing countries. Similarly, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been embraced by many developed countries to augment COP initiatives. However, very little is known about the application of ICTs in COP in developing countries, particularly South Asia. In this article, we review the current ICT-based COP initiatives by focusing on some of the selected projects from developed countries and South Asia. The paper has used COP in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan as a case. While meaningful insights can be derived through learning from the experiences of developed countries, we highlight some major issues and challenges that are likely to be faced while implementing ICT based COP in South Asia. Moreover, we provide an overview of some exciting opportunities that arise as a result of embracing ICTs to enhance COP efforts for building trusting community-police relations and hence improving human security in the region.

JoHS
John-Andrew McNeish 1, * , Skarlleth Martinez Prado 2 and Hugo Frühling Ehrlich 3
1 Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
2 Nicaraguan Institute of Strategic Study and Public Policy (IEEPP), Managua, Nicaragua
3 Institute of Public Policy, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
* Corresponding author
Views 3796
PDF 412
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Publication Date: 30 May 2019
 
Abstract: Until the wave of political violence in 2018, the Nicaraguan model for community-based policing (COP) was viewed by many as the means by which the country had avoided the crime and insecurity reported elsewhere in Central America. Paralleling these positive claims, the Nicaraguan National Police have emphasized particular characteristics of the COP model as the basis of this success. The Nicaraguan COP model is founded on three ethical pillars i.e. that it is communitarian, proactive and preventative. In this article, we detail the development of the Nicaraguan community-policing model and evaluate its historical and persisting significance as the guarantor of law and order through a critical evaluation of these claims and characteristics. The article demonstrates the abiding significance of the Nicaraguan COP model, and the distinctive nature of its operation. In contrast to prevailing regional trends there is much to learn from policing that emphasizes dialogue with the community over a reliance on technological or strong-arm solutions. However, the article also observes severe challenges regarding its current capacities and its erosion as a result of the pressures of presidential authoritarianism, political corruption and securitization. This erosion of the COP model has negatively affected the conditions of human security in Nicaragua and is a significant factor explaining the character of recent violence.

JoHS
Emerging Perspectives on Post-Conflict Police-Community Relations
doi: 10.12924/johs2019.15020001 | Journal of Human Security | 2019 | Volume 15 | Issue 2
Ingrid Nyborg
Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
Views 654
PDF 368
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Publication Date: 30 May 2019
 
Abstract: The world is increasingly interconnected—insecurity in one country can both directly and indirectly affect the security of people, countries and regions that are far away. Therefore, when conflict erupts in one part of the world, the international community responds in various ways to mitigate its effects, both locally and internationally. Whether it be through the provision of police, military and/or civilian personnel, humanitarian assistance, or post-conflict development assistance, the international community has repeatedly attempted to mitigate the effects of conflict, as well as to contribute to reforms which might lead to the prevention of local and global insecurity in the future.

CiS
Socio-Ecological Implications of Soy in the Brazilian Cerrado
doi: 10.12924/cis2019.07010007 | Challenges in Sustainability | 2019 | Volume 7 | Issue 1
Lea Rekow 1, 2, 3
1 Arts, Education & Law Group, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia
2 Green My Favela, New York, USA
3 Bifrost Online, Florida, USA
Views 67271
PDF 602
HTML 18665
Publication Date: 3 May 2019
 
Abstract: This paper summarizes the critical importance of the Cerrado savannah biome in Brazil and examines key ways in which large-scale agriculture, in particular large-scale soy farming, threatens water security and increases socio-ecological stress. It connects agribusiness expansion to the globalized meat industry by defining how complex economic relationships result in deforestation on a massive scale. It describes how this radical change in land cover has led to changes in rainfall patterns that are associated with extended drought periods and analyzes how these critical water shortages jeopardize socio-economic health beyond the immediate region. Further, it explicates how intensified transgenic soy farming and other pesticide-heavy crop production contributes to rising public health crises associated with carcinogen-contaminated water and food sources. Lastly, it identifies emerging trends that suggest how agribusiness corporations and governments may be legally ascribed moral responsibilities for maintaining socio-ecological health of the biome. The paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of the human dimensions of environmental issues and their impacts and reframe conservation social science discourse in regard to protection of land and water resources in the region.

OF
Mareike Beiküfner 1, * , Bianka Hüsing 1 , Dieter Trautz 1 and Insa Kühling 1, 2
1 Osnabrück University of Applied Sciences, Osnabrück, Germany
2 Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany
* Corresponding author
Views 719
PDF 933
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Publication Date: 10 April 2019
 
Abstract:

Today, the demand for soybean for feed industry and food production in Germany is met by imports from South and North America. Soybean cultivation in Germany, although challenging, will be of interest in the future due to an increasing demand for non-genetically modified (NGM) soybeans. To meet this rising demand for NGM soybeans and to increase resource use efficiency there is a need to reduce soybean harvest losses arising from harvesting with combine harvester. The height of the first pod can be a major factor affecting harvest losses, especially when it is not possible to maintain a sufficiently low cutting height. From 2011 to 2013, six soybean varieties were cultivated using two cropping systems (conventional ‘CON’ and organic ‘ORG’) at the Osnabru ̈ck University of Applied Sciences in a randomized block design with four replications to investigate the effect of first pod height and plant length on harvest losses and the effect of the cropping system on these parameters. Before harvesting with an experimental harvester, 1.5 m2 per plot were harvested manually as a reference. First pod height, number of pods per plant and plant length were determined on 10 plants per plot. Over the three years of the study, the first pod height (10.4 cm) and plant length (81.4 cm) were on average higher under conventional conditions compared to organic cultivation (7.3 cm; 60.9 cm). On average, lower harvest losses (25.6% vs. 39.2%) and higher grain yields (20.8 dt ha−1 vs. 16.9 dt ha−1) were also observed under conventional cultivation. Varieties differed significantly in grain yield, first pod height and plant length. A high first pod height was related to a longer plant length and lower harvest losses at both sites. However, a high first pod height and a high plant length did not lead to higher grain yields on any of the plots. These results indicate that harvest efficiency can be improved by choosing varieties with long plant lengths if it is not possible to maintain a low cutting height when harvesting with a combine harvester.


OF
Unbiased but Not Neutral
doi: 10.12924/of2019.05010001 | Organic Farming | 2019 | Volume 5 | Issue 1
Thomas F. Döring 1, 2
1 Editor-in-Chief of Organic Farming, Librello, Basel, Switzerland
2 Agroecology and Organic Farming Group, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
Views 359
PDF 869
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Publication Date: 9 April 2019
 
Abstract:

Organic farming is often subject of heated scientific and public debates. This raises the question: How can scientists working in organic farming research achieve being impartial while simultaneously sharing enthusiasm about organic farming and promoting it as a solution to many of the problems of agricultural and food systems? Science needs to be unbiased and detached from its object of investigation. It should be hesitant to draw conclusions. Public statements must wait until evidence is strong and reproducible. Complex matters need to be communicated in a differentiated way that acknowledges pros and cons. Finally, science needs to follow a strict separation of facts and opinion. In which ways does this culture go hand in hand with a burning passion for organic farming?


CiS
Tavis Potts
University of Aberdeen, Department of Geography and Environment, Aberdeen, UK
Views 363
PDF 894
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Publication Date: 2 April 2019
 
Abstract: This is a challenging book. It tests the reader on a number of fronts including a series of intensive theoretical discourses on the political economy of the green economy, a critique of the neoliberal green growth agenda, and the uncomfortable proposition that the trajectory offered by the green economy has significant implications for the equitable development of society. The ultimatum of the book suggests that the proposed solutions are politically difficult and involve radical social change.

CiS
Jose Antonio Puppim de Oliveira
Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV), São Paulo School of Management (EAESP) and Brazilian School of Public and Business Administration (EBAPE), São Paulo, SP, Brazil
Views 543
PDF 938
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Publication Date: 15 March 2019
 
Abstract: Is urbanization a danger or a solution to global sustainability? What institutions need to change to make urban areas more sustainable? In examining urbanization rates in countries over time, we see that they are often more correlated to carbon dioxide emissions than per capital income [1]. This tells us that urbanization patterns of the last 100 years have contributed to the increase in carbon emissions. We therefore need to develop a new kind of urbanization in order to tackle global challenges. However, reports about global changes often portray urbanization as “a problem”. Cities are polluted and increasingly crowded; urban inhabitants consume proportionately more resources and are responsible for a large portion of carbon emissions ([2], p. 927). As a urban planner, when I read those reports it seems I am looking at the books of urban planning in the last century, particularly those on urbanization in the colonies, where urbanization was presented as an unwanted process that caused a lot of harms to the “civilization” [3,4]. We must therefore change the discourse on how we describe urbanization if we want to transform it, as it will not be stopped. We must stress the many benefits that urbanization has brought to society, which are the main reasons people want to come to the cities in the first place. A question to be considered is therefore how to make urban life compatible with global challenges? i.e., how can we continue implementing/developing urbanization and the benefits that come with it without disproportionally increasing carbon emissions, the destruction of ecosystems and unsustainable consumption. There are many opportunities for win-win strategies between global sustainability challenges and development in urban areas, or synergies, such as climate co-benefits, i.e., tackling climate change and promoting development, particularly in some developing countries where cities are still being built and the path of urbanization can be changed [5,6]. Nevertheless, despite all we have learned about urbanization and the possible co-benefits opportunities since the last century, we lack understanding of the contextual and institutional conditions that make those solutions emerge.



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