DOI: 10.12924/johs2019.15010006 |Publication Date: 5 March 2019

Violent non-State Actors and New Forms of Governance: Exploring the Colombian and Venezuelan Border Zone

Rafael Duarte Villa 1, * and Marília Carolina Souza Pimenta 2
1 Department of Political Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
2 Center for International Politics Research, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
* Corresponding author
Abstract:

This article explores the causes underlying a strong presence of violent non-state actors (VNSAs) in South America. Based on a case study of the border area between Colombia and Venezuela, the research relies on a broad empirical data collected from newspapers, official documents and interviews. The analytical perspective has been grounded on a theoretical framework of four dimensions: (i) funding and illegal activities, (ii) presence in strategic regions, (iii) low state presence and (iv) violence, which identifies different forms of presence of VNSAs. When questioned about how VNSAs create new forms of alternative governance in a territorial space of fragile statehood, the results tend to reveal a context in which state governance seems to overlap the alternative and illegal governance of VNSAs, creating a fragile and hybrid governance in the region.


Keywords: Colombian and Venezuelan borders; governance; violence; violent non-state actors

Citation


2012 - 2019 by the authors; licensee Librello, Switzerland. This open access article was published under a Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).