Volume 4, Issue 1 (2018)


doi: 10.12924/of2018.04010001 | Volume 4 (2018) | Issue 1
Thomas Felix Döring 1, 2
1 Editor-in-Chief of Organic Farming, Librello, Basel, Switzerland
2 Agroecology and Organic Farming Group, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
Views 402
PDF 413
HTML 182
Publication Date: 16 May 2018
Abstract: This year, organic farmers, advisors and researchers in the West of Germany celebrate the 25th anniversary of the foundation of an organic research and demonstration network. Established to support and improve organic farming systems, the network is funded by the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia and is organized around 30 participating pilot farms called Leitbetriebe (‘leading farms’), with support from the university of Bonn and the Chamber of Agriculture For each of the practice-oriented research topics covered in this network, the typical five-year cycle of research involves a first year of experimental exploration and literature studies. The farmers participating in the pilot farm project discuss and select the topics of priority and review the research plans proposed by the scientists. This is followed by three years of systematic replicated field trials on several farms, and a final year of demonstration and evaluation, where the presentation of results is jointly done by farmers and researchers.

doi: 10.12924/of2018.04010003 | Volume 4 (2018) | Issue 1
Patrice A. Marchand
Institut Technique de l’Agriculture Biologique (ITAB), Paris, France
Views 439
PDF 459
HTML 132
Publication Date: 17 May 2018
Abstract:

So called ’active substances’ (A.S.) which are allowed in Organic Production are regularly criticized for different reasons. Previously, although permitted in Organic Farming some substances were not approved under EU general plant protection products (PPP) regulation; therefore they were removed for their toxicity or exhibited characteristics (persistence, broad spectrum). Recent approbations under different new Articles of the EC regulation 1107/2009, gave rise to substances granted without maximum residue limits (MRL). We previously described approved basic substance (Art. 23) as potential candidates for organic farming; here we describe low risk substances (Art. 22) as new implements for substitution of controversial organic biopesticides and consequently as candidates for substitution (Art. 24).


doi: 10.12924/of2018.04010007 | Volume 4 (2018) | Issue 1
Stefano Orsini 1, * , Susanne Padel 1 and Nic Lampkin 1
1 The Organic Research Centre, Elm Farm, Berkshire, UK
* Corresponding author
Views 699
PDF 482
HTML 154
Publication Date: 22 June 2018
Abstract: Organic farming is frequently associated with claims of more labour requirements than conventional. However, there is a fragmented knowledge about labour use on organic farms in terms of workload, nature and quality of employment provided. In the context of a growing organic demand and a need for more farmers to convert to reach policy targets set by many EU governments, it seems crucial to understand labour trends on organic farms and to what extent labour requirements may hinder the adoption of the organic methods. This paper presents a review of mainly European literature published since 2000. Studies presenting results by farm type usually indicate higher labour use per hectare on organic than conventional arable farms, whereas similar or lower labour use is reported on organic livestock farms, and the results are mixed for other farm types. We have identified in the existing literature two broad dimensions directly related with labour use, which need to be considered in comparative studies, namely farm structure (including farm type, but also farm size and diversification activities), and technical efficiency. These two broad dimensions give us insights into some more specific factors affecting labour use, and how labour is related with productivity and technical efficiency. Overall it appears that claims that labour requirements represent a concrete obstacle to the adoption of the organic methods need to be treated with caution, and more research is needed to understand the role of labour in farmers’ decision to convert to organic farming. The review of the nature and quality of employment indicates positive health effects related to higher satisfaction and lower exposure to pesticides in organic agriculture as the most important advantages for farm workers. Overall, there is limited research on whether the organic sector provides better opportunities in terms of job prospects, wages and employment of women.


ISSN: 2297-6485
2012 - 2018 Librello, Switzerland.