DOI: 10.12924/johs2019.15020007 |Publication Date: 30 May 2019
Community-Based Policing in Nicaragua: Do the Claims of Communitarian, Proactive and Preventative Hold True?
John-Andrew McNeish 1, * , Skarlleth Martinez Prado 2 and Hugo Frühling Ehrlich 3
|1 Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway|
|2 Nicaraguan Institute of Strategic Study and Public Policy (IEEPP), Managua, Nicaragua|
|3 Institute of Public Policy, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile|
|* Corresponding author|
Abstract: Until the wave of political violence in 2018, the Nicaraguan model for community-based policing (COP) was viewed by many as the means by which the country had avoided the crime and insecurity reported elsewhere in Central America. Paralleling these positive claims, the Nicaraguan National Police have emphasized particular characteristics of the COP model as the basis of this success. The Nicaraguan COP model is founded on three ethical pillars i.e. that it is communitarian, proactive and preventative. In this article, we detail the development of the Nicaraguan community-policing model and evaluate its historical and persisting significance as the guarantor of law and order through a critical evaluation of these claims and characteristics. The article demonstrates the abiding significance of the Nicaraguan COP model, and the distinctive nature of its operation. In contrast to prevailing regional trends there is much to learn from policing that emphasizes dialogue with the community over a reliance on technological or strong-arm solutions. However, the article also observes severe challenges regarding its current capacities and its erosion as a result of the pressures of presidential authoritarianism, political corruption and securitization. This erosion of the COP model has negatively affected the conditions of human security in Nicaragua and is a significant factor explaining the character of recent violence.
Keywords: civil unrest; community-based policing; crime; Nicaragua; security