Volume 15, Issue 2 (2019) | Community-Oriented Policing after Conflict—Emerging Perspectives


doi: 10.12924/johs2019.15020001 | Volume 15 (2019) | Issue 2
Ingrid Nyborg
Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
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Publication Date: 30 May 2019
Abstract: The world is increasingly interconnected—insecurity in one country can both directly and indirectly affect the security of people, countries and regions that are far away. Therefore, when conflict erupts in one part of the world, the international community responds in various ways to mitigate its effects, both locally and internationally. Whether it be through the provision of police, military and/or civilian personnel, humanitarian assistance, or post-conflict development assistance, the international community has repeatedly attempted to mitigate the effects of conflict, as well as to contribute to reforms which might lead to the prevention of local and global insecurity in the future.

doi: 10.12924/johs2019.15020007 | Volume 15 (2019) | Issue 2
John-Andrew McNeish 1, * , Skarlleth Martinez Prado 2 and Hugo Frühling Ehrlich 3
1 Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
2 Nicaraguan Institute of Strategic Study and Public Policy (IEEPP), Managua, Nicaragua
3 Institute of Public Policy, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
* Corresponding author
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Publication Date: 30 May 2019
Abstract: Until the wave of political violence in 2018, the Nicaraguan model for community-based policing (COP) was viewed by many as the means by which the country had avoided the crime and insecurity reported elsewhere in Central America. Paralleling these positive claims, the Nicaraguan National Police have emphasized particular characteristics of the COP model as the basis of this success. The Nicaraguan COP model is founded on three ethical pillars i.e. that it is communitarian, proactive and preventative. In this article, we detail the development of the Nicaraguan community-policing model and evaluate its historical and persisting significance as the guarantor of law and order through a critical evaluation of these claims and characteristics. The article demonstrates the abiding significance of the Nicaraguan COP model, and the distinctive nature of its operation. In contrast to prevailing regional trends there is much to learn from policing that emphasizes dialogue with the community over a reliance on technological or strong-arm solutions. However, the article also observes severe challenges regarding its current capacities and its erosion as a result of the pressures of presidential authoritarianism, political corruption and securitization. This erosion of the COP model has negatively affected the conditions of human security in Nicaragua and is a significant factor explaining the character of recent violence.

doi: 10.12924/johs2019.15020021 | Volume 15 (2019) | Issue 2
Tahir Maqsood 1, * , Sajjad A. Madani 1 , Bahadar Nawab 1 , Shakir Ullah 1 and Ingrid Nyborg 2
1 COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Pakistan
2 Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
* Corresponding author
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Publication Date: 17 July 2019
Abstract: Community-oriented policing (COP) as a model has found widespread acceptance throughout the world both in developed and developing countries. Similarly, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been embraced by many developed countries to augment COP initiatives. However, very little is known about the application of ICTs in COP in developing countries, particularly South Asia. In this article, we review the current ICT-based COP initiatives by focusing on some of the selected projects from developed countries and South Asia. The paper has used COP in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan as a case. While meaningful insights can be derived through learning from the experiences of developed countries, we highlight some major issues and challenges that are likely to be faced while implementing ICT based COP in South Asia. Moreover, we provide an overview of some exciting opportunities that arise as a result of embracing ICTs to enhance COP efforts for building trusting community-police relations and hence improving human security in the region.

doi: 10.12924/johs2019.15020041 | Volume 15 (2019) | Issue 2
Nawab Bahadar 1, * , Shakir Ullah 1 , Ingrid Nyborg 2 and Tahir Maqsood 1
1 COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad, Pakistan
2 Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
* Corresponding author
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Publication Date: 26 July 2019
Abstract: Community-police relations in Pakistan are often intricate, as are their reforms. Mistrust, political intervention, meager financial resources, lack of educated/trained human resources, over-expectations and miscommunication are some of the factors contributing to weak policing and poor community-police relations. The police as a service-oriented public institution has been a demand of the public and the dream of consecutive governments. In this study, we explore the political, institutional and technical reforms taken by the government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and the police department to improve their police and policing. The Police Act 2017 and Community-Oriented Policing, Dispute Resolution Councils (DRCs), and Information and Communications Technology (ICT) initiatives are critically analyzed in terms of their intentions and contribution to improved police-community relations. Politicians, police, civil society organizations and community members from KP were interviewed for their perceptions of police reforms and community-police relations. The study finds strong political will to empower and depoliticize police, and to shift its focus from purely crime fighting into community service provision, including pro-active engagement of police with the community. The study also finds that most of the new initiatives of the government of KP are in the spirit of community--oriented policing, and community members see visible improvement in policing and community-police relations.

doi: 10.12924/johs2019.15020054 | Volume 15 (2019) | Issue 2
Ingrid L.P. Nyborg 1, * , Jaishankar Ganapathy 2 and Ajmal Nimruzi 1
1 Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
2 Norwegian Police University College, Olso, Norway
* Corresponding author
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Publication Date: 23 October 2019
Abstract: In Afghanistan, police reform is an important focus of international efforts. After over a decade of assistance, however, there are still daunting challenges of public trust and police effectiveness. From a civilian perspective, the role of the police is a crucial one—and very different from that of the military. Communities, being at the very heart of security challenges, are well positioned to understand the intricacies of security and development. A police service able to work closely with communities plays an important role in managing conflict in the long run. Recognizing this, Afghanistan’s Ministry of Interior Affairs (MoIA) has steadily increased its efforts in community-oriented policing (COP), despite a deteriorating security situation since the withdrawal of US troops in 2014.
This paper explores how COP in Afghanistan links with local communities and institutions to ensure both peoples’ security and trust. It begins by considering police-community relations through a broad lens of human security, which comprises the social, economic, political, cultural and legal aspects of their everyday lives. We then examine international assistance to police reform, how the Afghan police have developed their COP philosophy, and how this has played out in re-defining police-community relations. Using field data from Nimruz Province, we then look at the role of local institutions of chowkidari and shura in addressing people’s insecurities, and opportunities for linking these with COP efforts of the police. We conclude that there is a real potential for COP in Afghanistan that his locally owned and sustainable, if enough attention is given to inclusive processes and developing creative and flexible trust-building relationships with local institutions and organizations.


doi: 10.12924/johs2019.15020070 | Volume 15 (2019) | Issue 2
Erika Julieta Rojas Ospina
Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway
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Publication Date: 14 January 2020
Abstract: With the purge of the Military Forces and the creation of a new National Civilian Police (PNC) as mandated by the 1992 Peace Accords, El Salvador set the stage for the construction of a less state-oriented security approach. However, a failure to question issues of security and a lack of consideration of gender in the Peace negotiations and the Security Reform resulted in an overly gendered understanding of security, were the State remained as its subject and the practice privileged a militarized masculinity that has hindered the implementation of democratic policing. In this context, 25 years after the Peace Accords, the police have been unable to consolidate a democratic policing practice as oppressive policing strategies remain deeply embedded in the institution, side-by-side with heavy-handed measures that use repression to control social violence. From a feminist critical security approach, the article questions the gendered nature of security in El Salvador, and investigates the implication of the introduction of militaries into the work of the police, in terms of its symbolic influence in the gendered expectations of police men and women, and the practical impact it has on their work, e.g., the difficulty of consolidating Community-Oriented Policing. The argument is based on interviews and focus groups with police men and women, as well as with feminist organizations. The information was gathered during fieldwork in 2018 and 2019, and through extensive literature review.

ISSN: 1835-3800
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