Volume 11, Issue 1 (2015)

Papers published:

doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010001 | Volume 11 (2015) | Issue 1
Sabina Lautensach 1, 2, 3
1 Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Human Security, Librello, Basel, Switzerland
2 Human Security Institute, Canada
3 University of Northern British Columbia, Terrace Campus, BC, Canada
Publication Date: 24 February 2015
Abstract: This editorial marks the beginning of the journal's eleventh year since its inception as the Australasian Journal of Human Security. As a sample from an ex­tremely tumultuous era in human history, this time span has consistently provided an abundance of human security issues for me to comment on. Yet, for the first time since that fateful day in September of 2001, I feel that the world has arrived at another historical turning point. I am referring to the attack on the Paris office of the satirical journal Charlie Hebdo on January 7 and the events immediately following it.

doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010005 | Volume 11 (2015) | Issue 1
Alexander K. Lautensach
School of Education, University of Northern British Columbia, 4837 Keith Ave. Terrace, B.C. V8G 1K7, Canada
Publication Date: 24 February 2015
Abstract: In the current global environmental crisis medical aid and disaster relief is given by the UN and its branches, by governments and by NGOs, who regard it as their duty to address large-scale humanitarian catastrophes. The duty to give medical aid rests on traditional interpretations of health security and on the bioethical imperatives to relieve suffering and to save lives. However, those principles are not easily reconciled in the current situation of global environmental change and the threats it poses to human security. The global demand for health care has already outpaced resources in many regions, and those resources are likely to decline further. An ethic based on more comprehensive concepts of human security can lessen the contra­dictions between ethical priorities because it takes into account environmental security. How­ever, that approach leads to clashes with common interpretations of human rights, including the so-called right to health care. The argument presented in this paper states that, under the imperative of ensuring the survival for humanity in acceptable and sustainable ways, the latest generation of human rights pertaining to health care and environmental quality have become ungrantable. While this does not render them negligible, it does necessitate a new approach to global development aid and health security, with severe consequences for individual autonomy.

doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010019 | Volume 11 (2015) | Issue 1
Thomas F. Ditzler 1, * , Abigail D. Hoeh 1 and Patricia R. Hastings 2
1 Department of Psychiatry, Tripler Army Medical Center, 1 Jarrett White Rd, Honolulu, HI, 96859, USA
2 Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) Surgeon's Office, United States Department of Defense (DOD), 1400 Defense Pentagon, Washington, DC, USA
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 14 April 2015
Abstract: Since the early 1990s, the human security movement has sought to expand the concept of security beyond the traditional military defense of national borders to focus on the intra-state security needs of populations at the individual level. Specific initiatives frequently address problems of population health, ethnic conflict, religious extremism, human rights, environmental or natural disasters, and other critical issues. For expatriate human security workers in the field, the environment may present meaningful challenges to their wellbeing and productivity. This can be especially so for those who have relatively more experience in academic, business, or administrative settings, and less in the field. The authors' goal is to illuminate practices that have demonstrated their efficacy in enhancing wellness, sustainment, and productivity for human security and other humanitarian and development workers deployed to austere environments. The content represents a synoptic consensus of best general practices and guidance from a range of resources comprising United Nations agencies and activities, national and international non-governmental organizations (NGO's), private volunteer organ­izations (PVO's), national military services, and international business concerns.

doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010026 | Volume 11 (2015) | Issue 1
Leah Merchant
Department of Political Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA
Publication Date: 27 April 2015
Abstract: In his book Humanitarian Intervention and Legitimacy Wars: Seeking Peace and Justice in the 21st Century, Richard Falk argues that, with the growing prevalence of soft power, historical lessons of asymmetric warfare and legitimacy wars must be taken into account. Falk rejects the realist notion that the state is the only rational actor, offering a more constructivist approach that focuses on the norms, culture and morality of the international community. He asserts that humanitarian intervention is on the decline, and legitimacy wars are increasing. Much of this legitimacy is based on international law and its relevance in the international community.

doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010027 | Volume 11 (2015) | Issue 1
John M Quinn
Prague Center for Global Health, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University of Medicine Prague, Czech Republic
Publication Date: 9 July 2015
Abstract: Humanitarian crises are politically and socially charged, and as actors, donors and organizations move in to help, duplication of services can ensue. Despite the influx of humanitarian actors into the war zone of eastern Ukraine, more are still needed to address immediate threat to the health of more than 5 million at-risk people in the area. The humanitarian disaster in Ukraine requires fast support and stakeholder involvement to mitigate preventable death among at-risk populations. As the crisis unfolds and many more people are caught in the crossfire with no health security, WHO is leading the charge to organize healthcare and humanitarian action to relive human suffering and engender health security for all.

doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010034 | Volume 11 (2015) | Issue 1
David Denkenberger 1, 2 , Julia Way 1, 3 and Joshua M. Pearce 1, 4, 5, *
1 Michigan Tech Open Sustainability Technology (MOST) Lab, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
2 Civil and Architectural Engineering, Tennessee State University, TN, USA
3 Career Development Education, Michigan Tech Career Services, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
4 Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
5 Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, MI, USA
* Corresponding author
Publication Date: 29 September 2015
Abstract: Those who live in isolated communities often lack reliable, skilled employment opportunities, which fundamentally undermines their human security. For individuals who wish to remain in their isolated communities for family, religious, philosophical or other reasons, their attachment to their communities creates a disincentive for higher education. This promotes low educational achievement, which in turn results in low socioeconomic status, lack of social mobility, and a generational cycle of poverty. The human misery that results from such a feedback loop is observed in isolated communities throughout North America, including aboriginal communities in Canada. Fortunately, maturation of information and communication technologies now offers individuals the potential to gain high-skilled employment while living in an isolated community, using both (i) virtual work/remote work and (ii) remote training and education. To examine that potential, this study: 1) categorizes high-skill careers that demand a higher education and are widely viable for remote work, 2) examines options for obtaining the required education remotely, and 3) performs an economic analysis of investing in remote education, quantifying the results in return on investment. The results show that the Internet has now opened up the possibility of both remote education and remote work. Though the investment in college education is significant, there are loans available and the return on investment is generally far higher than the interest rate on the loans. The results identified several particularly promising majors and dozens of high-income careers. The ability to both obtain an education and employment remotely offers the potential to lift many people living in isolated communities out of poverty, reduce inequality overall, and provide those living in isolated communities with viable means of employment security, which not only allows personal sustainability, but also the potential for personal growth.

doi: 10.12924/johs2015.11010045 | Volume 11 (2015) | Issue 1
Jiyoung Song
School of Social Sciences, Singapore Management University, 90 Stamford Road, Singapore
Publication Date: 14 December 2015
Abstract: This article proposes human security as an analytical framework to understand the current trends of irregular migration (both forced and unauthorised) in East Asia and revisits the seven pillars of human security defined in the 1994 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). It explains how the concepts of human security are parallel to those prescribed in international human rights conventions but different in terms of the attitude towards states. Human security does not directly challenge state authority and adds a sense of urgency and moral authority that requires extra-legal measures by the states. The author argues that human security is the securitisation of human rights and is a better framework and policy discourse than human rights to engage with state and non-state actors, especially in East Asia where political leaders are more receptive to the former idea. The study draws examples from stateless Rohingyas, undocumented sex workers in Thailand and Singapore, trafficked brides from Vietnam and Cambodia, and smuggled North Korean refugees in China to demonstrate the nexus between human security and irregular migration.

ISSN: 1835-3800
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